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U,S. Department of Justice 



Federal Bureau of Investigation 

Washington, DC. 20535 


MR ERNIE LAZAR 
APARTMENT 6 

577 SOUTH THORNHILL ROAD 
PALM SPRINGS, CA 92264 7884 


May 18,2006 


v 


Dear Mr Lazar: 


: SUTHEftLApip, JQHNH/ A 
FOIPA No/1015205- 000* _„ 

M ~ / Oirr34 2.3 7 


Subject: 




e^mu r+yt •= /uyjtu*-*-*/ 

T pD^/ 

The enclosed documents were reviewed under the Freedom of Information/Privacy Acts (FQIPAj, Title Uy 

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OPTIONAL NO- iQ 

MAi IMS EDITION 
aSA GEN. RCQ- HO. TT 


TO 


FROM 


subject: 



UNITED STATES!GOVERNMENT 




/SI 

SAC; ST. LOUIS ( OflO ' tO ) 


date: 9/9/64 


AS AC DONALD W. BflORLEY 

ST, LO UIS METROPOLITAN CITIZENS COUNCIL 
SA £ C 


On 9/8/64 Clayton Po- 

lice Department, advised tnat tne at. Louis Metropolitan 
Citizens Council, which claims to b® a states rights 
and segregationist group, had applied for a permit to 
rent the Civic Center in Clayton, Missouri. -The indi¬ 
vidual making the application was a JOHN SUTHERLAND, 
who is supposed to be a local patent attorney. 


advised he was informing us 
since we may be interested in the above group. 

Indices of the St. Louis Office failed to 
reflect any information concerning the St. Louis Metro¬ 
politan Citizens Council or JOHN SUTHERLAND, JT-hC St. 
Louis Telephone Directory shows a lawyer by^the name 
of JOHN H. SUTHERLAND at 1221 Locust St: 



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OPTfONAl* rtJRM NO. *0 
MAY 1*1 EDITION 
ISA CEWf REG. NO, 37 



UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 

Memorandum ■ 




to : 

FROM : 

subject; 


SAC (157-582) 


sa[ 


St. LOUIS METROPOLITAN AREA CITIZENS COUNCIL 
RACIAL MATTERS 


date: 


September 28, 1984 


t)*> 

tv /; 


_ On September'28, 1964,1__ 

I 1 telephonically advised that he received an invitation to attend a meeting of 
captioned organizati on in th e mall t his date. Thi s invitiation was mailed to 
his fonner address: [___] 

He stated that this meeting is being held October 10, 1964 at the fl&nri g e* 
Electrical Worker* s Local #1, 5850 Elizabeth Ave. SLMO- (1 block east of 
Hampton Aye*) The speaker is to be l ~1 

Citizens Council of Maryland. This literature indicates that"this 
organisation is Just getting started. The local representative is . . 

JOHN S. SUTHERLAND The local address for this organization is Gravois Station 
. Post Office Box C, SffiO 63116. 

~1 advised that he is empl oyed by I I and 

that he had heard about an individual named 1 [p reviously who wqs dealing 

in the Communist Party. He stated that he felt that this literature was the 
same type and wanted to call the attention of thg FBI to this matter,' 

advised that he could not furnish anything further 
concerning tnis matter. 









































n- 



ST.‘LOUIS MElioPOUTAN AREA CITIZ^TS' COUNCIL 

/jT7- sW- ^ 


ORGANIZATION COMMITTEE 


ST LOUIS, MISSOURI 


CONFIDENTIAL 

Dear Patriot: 


AODRESS MAIL TO: 

John H. Sutherland 
Gravois Station 
P. 0. Box C 

St. Louis, Missouri 63116 


J 


You would not be receiving this letter if there was not good reason 
to believe that you are a patriotic American, jealous of your own ’’civil 
rights", and conscious of what has happened to many of the personal 
liberties which you previously took for granted. 

_ A gr_aup. of local citizens have quietly been meeting toge.ther__t.o_-ex-. . __ 

plore the situation. All agree that we are deep in the throes of MINORITY 
RULE; that we "forgotten men" got that way by failing to heed the admonition 
on the Great Seal of Missouri: 

„ "UNITED WE STAND, DIVIDED WE FALL"; 

and that the best way to regain majority rule is to have one strong locally- 
autonomous organization--bui.lt along non-partisan lines and geared to mak.e 
the local and national politicians listen to our combined voice. 

This is the plan of the Citizens’ Councils of America; and it is 
proving its effectiveness in communities across the country - from Califronia 
to Maryland. 

On Saturday, October 10, there will be a meeting in the Hall of 
Electrical Workers, Local # 1, $8$0 Elizabeth Avenue Cl block east of Hampton 

and 1 long block north of Southwest Avenue), starting at "8:fib p.m. At this 

meeting a ST. LOUIS METROPOLITAN AREA CITIZENS’ COUNCIL will be organized. 
Guest speaker will be Joseph McDowell Mitchell of Washington, D.C., FieLd 
Director for the Citizens' Councils of Maryland, Washington, and Virginia. 
Lpuia-M—Hollis, Executive Director of the Citizens’ Councils of America*, 
will be on hand to explain the structure and operating procedure of-the 
Council program. 

Your presence at this meeting will be of great value in the launching 
of this organized effort to combat lawlessness and racial agitation, to 
prevent minority-group domination of political affairs, and to get the 
Federal Government’s nose out of our'local and personal business. . 

The meeting is not open to .the general public . But you are welcome 
to bring members of your family". And if you have friends who share our 
concern, please write their names and addresses on the back of the coupon 
below, and return it within three days. Then bring them with, y_ou~ii 


you hear from us to the contrary. 


John H. Sutherland 
Temporary Chairman 




Sincerely 


SEARCHEJ 

iSUUWj; 


ocri-i ^ 4 

FBI—SLLOUIS AS 


Mary G. Burns 

Temporary Secretary 


Organization Committee-- 
ST. LOUIS METROPOLITAN AREA CITIZENS' COUNCIL 


Detach and mail to: John H. Sutherland 

Gravois Station P. 0. Box C 


St. "Louis, Missouri 63ll6 

n I will attend the Organization Meeting on Saturday, October 10, 1964, 
at 8:00 p.m. in the Hall of Electrical Workers, Local #1 in St. Louis. 

friends whose names and addresses are listed 


ri I will bring with me 
on the back. 

n I will be unable to attend, but am interested in being a part of this 
organization. 


(Please NAME_ 
Print) 


PHONE 


ADDRESS 


CITY & 
STATE 


ALL THAT IS NECESSARY FOR THE TRIUMPH OF EVIL IS THAT GOOD MEN DO NOTHING! 


























404 SIXTH STREET 

ESTHER - FLAT RIVER. MISSOURI 


HAVE FAITH l, 


MARK 11:22 


First Church of the Nazarene 

SIXTH AND COLUMBIA STREETS 

ESTHER - FLAT RIVER, MISSOURI 


PHONE 


PARSONAGE GEl -263 T 


CHURCH OFFICE GE 1 -2631 


@cA ? m 
> y 






$f{T' 



« 



JOHN H. SUTHERLAND 
GRAVOIS STATION P, O. BOX C 
ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 63HS 






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REMEMBER™ 

i 

The Citizens' Council movement is 
the only nationwide organization 
openly advocating the social sepa¬ 
ration of the races! 

irs TIME TO TAKE A STANDI * 


Why Mifst 

St Lmh 




Be sure to attend the organization 
meeting of YOUR 

ST. U 


COTEINS' COyiMClL 


Questions and answers for whrte resi- 
of St, Louis who sincerely believe 
States' Rights and racial segregation 
must be preserved for the peace and 
good order of our county, and for our 
children's futures! 




Saturday, October 10, 1964 

HALL OF ELECTRICAL WORKERS 
LOCAL #1 

ST. LOUIS, 

MISSOURI 

8:00 p.m. 




Organization Committee 

h • sj. ioms 

METlO(P©fL0TAINi AtiA' 


CSTSIEHS' COONCDiL 

ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 

,j ORGANIZATION—THE KEY TO VICTORY! 























' 9 

at ton 


Q— tV/icrf is the present ratio! situation m 
Sf, Lour*? 

A—For the past severoi year s, focal while 
"moderates" have attempted to appease 
the organized colored agitation groupl¬ 
and with tragic retults? Their well-intent ton¬ 
ed efforts have served only io whet the 
agitators' insatiable appetite* for power* 
Lika Hitler and Khrushchev* the collecfivij| 
have announced their program, They ! 
settle for nothing few than total integral io 
of every residential area, every social 
gathering, and every privately-owned busi¬ 
ness enterprise! The white majority mull 
act before state coercion prevents us from I 
doing sol 

Q-What cart bo accomplished by organ* 

Ilfng a 5*. Louis Metropolitan Area 
CW gens' Council? Will it make my f 
efforts more effective In preserving 
individual freedom andf the constitu¬ 
tional right to segregation? t 

A—A strong Citizens' Council in St* Louis, with 
thousands of members and capable feeder- 
ship, con restore harmony end stability to 
race relations to our community! We mud 
build a full-time organisation in St. Louis, 
capable of maintaining on office and beina 
always alert to efforts to integrate our 
munrty, 

Q—Why organize a Citizens' Council? 
Aren't there already too many organi¬ 
zations In St. Louis. 

A— Effective new of the Citizens' Council move¬ 
ment is shown by results throughout the 
notion. Communities with strong Dozens' 
Councils hove main rained freedom of 
choice in racial matters, while unorganised 
cities have surrendered supinely. During 
I be past 10 yean, the Citizens Councils 
have demonstrated lhat organization is 
the key to victory! Our St. Louts Metro¬ 
politan Area Citizens' Council wifi enable 
every dedicated white resident of this area 
to unite effectively to a program for victory! 

0—Who will tun the St. Louis Metropolitan 
Area Citizens*Council and set Iftpaffctei? 

A—YOU WiJll Each local Council — including 
ours in St* Louis — is completely auiono- 


mous. You nnd olher members select the 
officers and directors who plan our pro¬ 
gram and determine our policies. Tbii 
provides us with sound, responsible local 
leadership. Iff addition, through our affilia¬ 
tion with the Citizens' Councils of America, 
we have (he valuable opportunity to con¬ 
sult with leaders throughout the country, 
and with other local Citizens' Councils 
whose problems are similar to ours, 

Q—Can the dt hens' Council work with 
businessmen fa provenf forced inte¬ 
gration and the deprivation' of con- 
stilutionai guarantees? 

A—Yesl Statistics show that integration is bad 
for business! By working to uphold property 
rights and freedom of choice, your Citizens' 
Council can moke on imporfont contribution 
to the continued prosperity of thts area. 
We can help focal businessmen resist assaults 
by Negro agitators* We can demand — 
and obtain — vigorous enforcement of exist¬ 
ing lows, and safeguard the right of each 
business to operate as its owners see fit, 
in keeping wilh our American traditions* 

Q— Wasn't out baffle Tost with passage 
of the so-rafted Cfvff Rights Biff? 

indeed! The "civil wrongs' bill Wifi be 
just as unenforceable os prohibition. 
However, we must now become better 
organized. On July 3, 196-1 - the day it 
was signed into law—the Citizens' Councils 
of America began □ nationwide campaign 
aimed at repealing the so-called "Civil 
Rights" act* They pledged to continue ond 
intensify this effort, and to enlist the sup¬ 
port of white American* in every lection 
of our nation who oppose this vicious and ' 
tyrannical I eg] slat ion. Every citizen is per. 
fectly within his legal rights In working to 
repeal the "Civil Rights" acl. 

Q—I* membership fn the CJtfieni' Council 
open only to men? 

A—Nol Women are the guardians of our 
homes. They train our children. It is im¬ 
portant for ihem to be members! We need 
the support of the todies—particularly the 
mothers. 


Q—As a member, what wilt t be asked to 
do? 

A— You will have an opportunity to work with 
a committee of the Council, according to 
your own profession or field of interest* 
Special projects such as membership drives, 
addressing mall or telephoning members 
will require volunteer workers* The few hours 
you devote to the Council will be repaid 
in full by the inner satisfaction of knowing 
that you ore doing something positive tor 
your children and for your community's 
future] « 

O-How much wiff ft cost me? 

A—A local Citizens' Council has minimum 
monthly dues of $2 per member. This 
Includes a subscription to Ihe official 
monthly magazine, THE CITIZEN, support 
of the Citizens' Council Forum, and the 
state and nolionol ossoctotlems* 


Q—How may t jo in the Citizens' Council? 
A—You may join at the organization meeting 
of the St. Louis Metropolitan Area Citizens' 
Council to be held ot 8:00 p.m* on Satur¬ 
day, October 10, in the Hall of Efectrkol 
Workers, Local #J, 5350 Elizabeth Avenue 
to St* Louis. Flan to aitend^und bring your 
(fiends who feel as you dot If you can't 
come, we'll be happy to send you a mem¬ 
bership application. But be at the meet¬ 
ing if you possibly can] Please compfedfl 
the reply form an the bock of this pa ™ 
and roatf it today I 

USE "THIS SPACE TO LIST NAMES ANTS 
ADDRESSES OF VOUR FRIENDS AND 
BUSINESS ASSOCIATES WHO SHOULD 
BE INVITED TO ATTEND THE MEETWG. 
DR WHO MAY BE INTERESTED IN JOINING 
THE CnrtEENS COUNCIL 



















Thank you #oh* your letter of October © 


Vitt#.'3# to-adrise you that the FBI. has 
no jurls«ieti®B--^©&*.the type of nail seat to 
you* ■Kows^roF,' should you so desire, you nay refuse 
to accept. sail and return it . to the seeder* 


‘THOMS J. GEABTY 
Special Agent in Charge 


SJP:mvs 

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t (Mount Clipping fn Space Below) 


125 Persons Attend 

Organizational Meet- 

ing—Congress, High 

Court Assailed 

By ROBERT H. COLLINS 
Of the Post-Dispatch Staff 
Gov* George C Wallace of 
Alabama may appear here to 
spur the membership drive of 
the newly formed Citizens Coun¬ 
cil of Metropolitan St, Louis* it 
was announced at the first meet* 
ing of the group. 

* "It's not exactly definite yet, 
John H. Sutherland said, -‘but 
I am making every effort to 
have him here/' 

A burst of applause followed 
the announcement and murmurs 
of approval swept through the 
audience as the vigorous clap¬ 
ping subsided. 

Sutherland, a St, Louis lawyer, 
was the leader in organizing the 
segregationist Citizens’ Council 
here. The group held hs first 
meeting Saturday night at the 
Electrical Workers Hall, 5850 
. Elizabeth avenue. 

Attendance Limited 
| Attendance was limited to per* 
sons who had been invited and 
who were questioned and 
checked off on a list at the en¬ 
trance to the ball, 
v/* Sutherland appointed a noml* 
nating committee to select a 
slate of officerf and announced 
that another closed meeting of 
the council will be held at 8 
p.m, Friday at German Hall, 
Lafayette and Jefferson avenue. 

The membership wall vote at 
that time on the slate presented 
by .the nominating committee. 

About 125 persons attended 
the organiz ational me eting., Tfy e 
piftnnpiii speakers, in addition 
r --■ -■ ~. 


and, were Joseph"Me 7 

fowelTTtartchell, controversial 
former city manager of New¬ 
burgh, N<Y., and M ed ford 
Evans, consultant to the Citi¬ 
zens* Council of America and 
author of 'The Secret War for 
the A-Bomb/ 1 * Mitchel l is a field 
director of the Citizens’ Councils. 

Condemns Court, Congress 

Sutherland condemned the Sdr 
prom© Court and Congress for 
actions by both bodies in the last 
10 years that have furthered de¬ 
segregation, 

(Minority groups, thrpugh or¬ 
ganization and maintenance of 
a constant clamor for their 
"rights/ 1 , have, ■ in effect, nulli¬ 
fied the rights of the majority 
of the American people, in many 
in seances, Sutherland asserted. V 

He made it clear that a major 
objective df the Citizens' Council 
of Metropolitan St. Louis would 
be political influence. 

Sti Lou team, if given the op-, 
portunity to express their will in I 
a referendum, would overwhelm* u 
ingly reject inDegration in all the I; 
forms in wihioh it has been 
forced upon tfvem r Sutherland de¬ 
clared. 

Except for reference to a hos¬ 
tile press in SL Louis. Sutflier* 
land did not indicate why local 
meetings of the group were 
dosed to the public. 

Operation in South 

In several Southern states 
where the Citizens' Councils 
wield great economic and polit¬ 
ical power* the public is gener* 
ally kept well-informed of their 
activities* although some secrecy 
is involved in their programs. 

Sutherland read a letter from 
’’a couple who lived on Clemens 
avenue 27 years but were forced 
to leave their home when the 
Negroes moved in because they 
icouldn't live in peace/* 

The letter praised Sutherland 
for forming # a St, Louis chapter 
of the Citizens 1 Councils, Suther¬ 
land quqted the letter as saying 
that the man and bis wife who 
moved learned "that Negroes 
have.no respect ofr anyone ©tee's 
property/ 1 

Sutherland quoted the letter as 
saying that city officiate fol¬ 
lowed the weak policy of ^trying 
to live with them and train 
th em/* "Whi te peop le had bett er 
walce u$J r fljjg letter concluded. 

, • Sfci • * 


King 

Mitchell referred to The famous 
"LHad-A-Dream" speech by the 
Rev, Dr, Martin Luttfter King. 
"Had be not caused racial riots 
end murders, then his dream 
might have been worth hearing/* 
Mitchell said. 

Although he did not mention 
Dr* King by name, Mitchell re¬ 
ferred to him as "an ambitious 
man with subversive ideas.**t 

"Ours is a sick society, poi¬ 
soned by socialism* relief checks 
and the «use of children as pawns 
of quack sociologists," Mitchell 
declared. 

Referring to the "loss of 
states' rights" through encroach¬ 
ment of the government, Mitchell 
said that the American people 
were losing their freedom be¬ 
cause of the actions of "the Fed¬ 
eral Supreme Court dictator¬ 
ship/* 

Civil rights leaders have con¬ 
ceded that the "civil rights bill 
would not have passed on a na¬ 
tional referendum/' Mitchell 
said. 

Evans explained the motives 
and organization of the Citizens' 
Councils and attacked, tihe Fed¬ 
eral Government for what he 
called its increasing usurpation 
of the rights of the American in¬ 
dividual and the state in which : 
fie lives, "States 1 Rights ajidt. 
facial Integrity” is the motto 
he Citizens* Councils of Arm 
ha, Evans said 


[Indicate page, name of 
newspaper, city and Plate.) 


St. Louis Globe- 
Democrat, St. 
Louis, Missouri 
St, Louis Post- 
Dispatch, St. 
Louis, Missouri 
The St, Louis 
Argus, St. Louis, 
Missouri 




Dote 
Edition: 
A uthor: 
Editor: 
Title; 


Characters 

or 

Classified lion: 
Submitting Office: 


be 
b C 


at. L-OUiS 





— u> 


SEARCHED_INDEXED 

SERIALHED^^^^ 

OCT 1 3 '"A 


















































* * 


JOlO-10/ 


OPTIONAL FOAM 10 
MAY 1002 COITION 
03* OENl HE a. NO + V 


% 


UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 

Memorandum 


TO \ 

SAC 

FROM : 

SA 

subject: 

ST. 


SAC, ST. LOUIS (157-582) 


date: 


11/20/64 


b* 

b7 




0 


CITIZENS COUNCIL (SLMACC) 

RACIAL MATTERS 

Re memo of ASAC DONALD W. MORLEY 9/9/64. 

Referenced memorandum states that the above captioned 
group had applied to the Clayton Police Department for a permit 
to rent Civic Center in Clayton, Mo., through JOHN SUTHERLAND, 
St. Louis patent attorney; that the organization claimed to 
be a states rights and segregation group. 

A check of the records o f the Commercial Credit 
Rating Co., SLMO, on 9/14/64 by 


IWC 


1C 


that JOHN H. SUTHERLAND, age 58 (1964)71 


Ireve ale 
Ttras 



a self-employed patent lawyer at 1221 Locust St., SLMO; that 
he was previously employed as a partner in the firms of 
Bruninger and Sutherland (1952); Sutherland, Polster and 
Taylor (1958) and *was employed by the U, S. Patent Office, 
1927-1930. His residence was 23 Washington Terrace, SLMO. 

The record indicated that SUTHERLAND was graduated from 
Virginia Military Institute and Benton College of Law, SLMO; 
that he is also reported to be an engineer and that he had 
been^Vice President and Treasurer of the Becker-Bischoff 
Chemical Co., 3894 Pine St., SLMO. His credit record was 
satisfactory. 

Arrest records of the SLPD disclose that JQHN7 
HAKVOTTA SUTHERLAN D^ age 34 (1940) of 1004 Market 8Fr,’ T "§LMO, 
was arrested on ^?22/40 for careless driving and was assessed 
court costs; that on 9/14/35 he was arrested for speeding and 
fined $5 and costs. 

Indices of the St. Louis Division disclosed that 
on 7/26/41 JOHN SUTHERLAND, Patent Attorney, 202 Daily Record 
Building, SLMO, requested the FBI to investigate a burglary 


C - 


XT/'- 7 






















The "St. Louis Globe Democrat" issue of 10/7/64 
contained an article on page 19A stating that a strong 
racial appeal was being made to white residents of St. Louis 
by a leaflet being mailed to local individuals announcing that 
the SLMACC would hold an organizing meeting on 10/10/64 at 
5350 Slizabeth Ave., SLMO; that the group was headed by JOHN H. 
SUTHERLAND, an attorney, and that the meeting was by invitation 
only. 


SL 157-582 


at his office and inspect some national defense secrets 
in his possession; that he had possession of papers on 
highly confidential new mechanical secrets concerning the 
manufacture of powder by the Western Cartridge Co., on 
which he was to secure a patent. He claimed he put the papers 
in the usual place in his office and later found they were 
moved; that a window was open, a heel mark on the outside 
and hair was found the office. 


Investigation revealed that the janitor of the 
building had been in the room to wash the windows and clean 
the room and that he had moved the papers; had forgotten to 
close the window; that the heel mark was his and the hairs 
were from the cleaning brush. 


On 9/29/64, 1 _ forwarded to the 

St. Louis Division a letter she received in the mail on 9/28/64 
announcing that the SLMACC was holding a /nesting on 10/10/64 
at 5850 Elizabeth Ave., SLMG, the Elec^/ical Workers Hall, 

Local #1, at 8;0G p.m., to endeavor to'organize a St. Louis 
Metropol itan Area Citizens Council; ,dfhat the* guest speake r 






izens Council'of Maryland, Washington 
and Virginia, and that LOUIS W. HOLLIS* Executive Director of 
the Citizens Councils oT^B@FfS 5 a7 Ic wG^G be present to explain 
the structure and operating procedures of the council program; 
that the meeting was not open to the general public and that 
an attached coupon should be signed and^submitted to JOHN H. 
SUTHERLA ND. Grave is Sta tion. P.O. Bo ^c. SLMO. gone 63116. 

The name| |was list^d-'as 

- ^ l-1 

The indices of the St ."'Louis Division disclose no 
references tof 


Lrginia, and that LOUIS W. HOLLIS* Executive Director of 







b6 

bVf 


* * 




* 


SL 157-582 


On 10/13/64, Detective [ 


__Intelli¬ 
gence Unit, SLPD, advised that he attended the organizing 
meeting of the SLMACC on 10/10/64 at the Electrical Workers 
Hall, 5850 Elizabeth Ave., SLMO, and had submit ted his member- 
ship application; that dues are $2,00 a month. I 
stated that the main purpose of the meeting was to instigate 
a membership drive in the St. Louis area and to select a 
Nominating Committee to nominate and elect officers for the 
local organization. He stated that the meeting was opened 
by the temporary acting chairman, JOHN H. SUTHERLAND, a 
St. Louis attorney, who talked briefly about the Negroes in 
the United States being forced upon white citizens and that 
it was time for all white citizens to organize to defeat this 
move at the polls; that this could only be achieved by political 
pressure; that he further stated that it was his belief that 
if the question of desegregation were put Jt the citizens of 
St. Louis, that they would in the privacy of the voting booth 
overwhelmingly reject it in housing, education, and all the 
activities in the St. Louis area. 


who wasf 


He said SOTHERLATO then introduced the first spea ker. 


1 


who made ab6uTj^"45 minute speech concerning 
desegregation of schools, the filings of the Supreme Court, 
aid to farmers and farm subsidie s, and that he also attacked 


M 

b' 


the Peace Corps . He stated that 
I 1 had been dismissed after 


attack against welfare activities in 
attack being upon the large amount o 
aid to dependent children cases. 


C 

ms|_ 


evening was^ 

Councils of Ameri ca and 
I that I 

or rne uixxzens Council 


1 stated 



launched an 

city, his principal 
money being spent on 


it another speaker of the 

1 for the Citizens 


-united DriefJLy abour tne major objectives 
in the St. Louis area and also made 
reference to the hostile press in St. Louis. He said his 
main purpose for attending this meeting was to kick off a 
membership drive and get a newly formed branch operating in 
St, Louis; that he also announced that a meeting for members 
only would be held on 10/16/64 at 8:00 p.m., in the German 


bfe 

hlC 


- 3 - 

































4 


SL 157-582 


House at Jefferson and Lafayette, SLMG, at which officers 
would be elected and plans for local operation would be 
made. 

I [ stated that the 

about 125 persons and that he recognized 
believes is a member of .the National 
the St. Louis area. 

On 11/17/64, 1 | advised that 

no additional information concerning any further activity of 
the SLMACC , but had received a letter a few days before acknow- - 
ledging receipt of his membership application and acceptance 
of same and requested that he send his $2.00 dues. He stated 
that he would advise the St. Louis Division if any additional 
information concerning any activity of the SLMACC was received 
by him. 



Inasmuch as the above information does not indicate 
any current activity by the SLMACC since its 10/10/64 meeting, 
it is recommended that this case be closed pending receipt of 
further information disclosing that a St. Louis area branch 
has begun functioning. 













OPTIONAL FORM MO. 10 
wur iiaz COITION 
OSA GEN. ftEO, NO. V 


MtiMD* 


t 


UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 

Memorandum 


to : 

SAC, ST. LOUIS 

date: 9/29/64 

from ; 

SA 


subject: 

ST. LOUIS METROPOLITAN AREA 
CITIZENS COUNCIL 

SM - MISCELLANEOUS 



On 9/28/64, 

of the 


First Church of the Nazarene at Esther - Flat River, Mo., 
telephonleally communicated with the St. Louis Office and 
advised the writer that he was in receipt of correspondence 


and literature from captioned organization which he questioned 
as being possibly subversive in nature and wanted to know 
what to do about it* 


|_ I was advised that the FBI was not in a 

position to furnish information to him concerning any 
individual or organization and that this refusal did not 
indicate that the FBI may or may not know about the organiza¬ 
tion. He was requested to mall to this office the literature 
he had received. 


_ On 9/29/64, correspondence was received from | 

I [ forwarding the literature he had received from captioned 

organization, which is attached. 


sl 

SJPsrc 


U) 


/AS 


as 7 


SEARCHED.INDEXED „ 

| TALKED. 

S;"p 2 i: ; ' fn '' 1 

Fftf i I nyjg 



b7 


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file 
































PD-350 (Rev. 7-16-63) 


(Mount Clipping In Space Below) 


liroup Issues 
Strong Racial i 

„ I 

Appeal to Whiles. 


A strong racial appeal tx> white j 
residents here has appeared in 
literature seeking support for the 
St. ( Louis Metropolitan Area Citi-: 
zeros' Council, wfocth will have an 
organizational meeting Saturday 
right. 

"Remember, the Citizens* Coun¬ 
cil movement is the only nation¬ 
wide organization openly advo-. 
eating thre social separation of 
the races! '* states a leaflet mailed 
to individuals by the local coun- 
cH*s organization committee. “It’s 
time to take a stand.” 

BY INVITATION ONLY 
The group is headed by John 
H. Sutherland, an attorney. The 
meeting, open by invitation only, i 
will be at 8 p.m, Saturday at the 
Electrical Workers Hall, 5850 
Elizabeth ave. - * \ 

A leaflet outlines the present 
racial situation in St. Louis as 
follows: 

“For the past several years, 
local white 'moderates' have at¬ 
tempted to appease the organ¬ 
ized colored agitation groups— 
and With tragic results! Their 
wedl - intentioned efforts have 
eerved only to whet the agita¬ 
tors* insatiable appetites for 
power. 

. ‘TOTAL INTEGRATION* 
“Like Hitler and Khrushchev, 
the collectivists have announced 
their program. They will settle 
for nothing less than total inte¬ 
gration of every residential area, 
every social gathering and every 
privately owned business enter¬ 
prise! The white majority must 
act before state coercion pre¬ 
vents us from doing so! ** i 

The leaflet asserted that com¬ 
munities with strong Citizens* 
Councils have maintained free¬ 
dom of dhoice in racial matters, 
while unorganized cities have 
* Surrendered 6upinely.» J - i, - ,r ’M 



(Indicate page, name of 
newspaper, city and state.) 


St. Louis Glooe- 
Democrat, St. 
Louis* Missouri 
St. Louis Post- 
Dispatch* St. 
Louis, Missouri 
The St. Louis 
Argus, St, Louis, 
Missouri 


Date: 10-7-64 


Character: 


Classification: 
Submitting Office; 


St. Louis 


1 1 Being Investigated 









OPTIONAL FORM NO 10 
MUY tffll BOTTtON 
os a OEN. neo, n&> i? 


UNITED STATES GO^feRNMENT 

Memorandum 


TO 


SAC, ST. LOUIS (157-582) 


FROM 


SA 


subject: ST. LOUIS METROPOLITAN AREA 

CITIZENS COUNCIL 
RM 



date: 5-13-65 


joe 

bic 


On 5-3-65, Det. 


] SLPD INTELLIGENCE 


UNIT, advised that he is a mem ber of the above-captioned 


organiz ation under the name of 

| He stated that on 4-21-05, he received through the mail 
a petition addressed to: "MEMBERS OF THE MISSOURI LEGISLATURE" 
and which stated that the undersigned wished to go on record 
as being opposed to the repeal of the Missouri Anti-Mls- 
cegnatlon Law; that "we feel that the inter-marriage between 
the races will create many more problems than it would ever 
solve," and urged defeat of H. B. § 129 and H, B. # 132, 

The petition and the envelope in which It was received is being 
made an exhibit in the 1 a serial of the file. 



Buy US. Savings Bonds Regularly on the Payroll Savings Plan 







UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 

Memorandum 


SAC, ST. LOUIS <157-582) 


date: 5/21/65 


FROM 


ASAC DONALD W. MORLEY 


SUBJECT 


ST, LOUIS METROPOLITAN 
AREA CITIZENS COUNCIL 


On 5/21/65 at 1:15 P. M,, a male individual, 
who would not identify himself, called and stated 
that he had been approached to join a new organization 
called the Citizens Council. He stated that he under¬ 
stood that this was an outgrowth of an organization 
which was formed in 1954 in the Southern part of the 
United States, and is more or less referred to as the 
"Third Party." He stated that from the information he 
had obtained this group is for the purpose of obtaining 
more rights and benefits for the white people. He 
stated that according to information that has been fur¬ 
nished to him, the individual in St 


Louis who is or- 
I telephone number 


rou 


This anonymous individual desired to know 
whether this was an organization which was subversive 
at which time he was advised of the confidential nature 
of FBI records and that we could not make any comments 
concerning any organization. However, it was suggested 
to him that he may desire to contact the Department of 
Justice or check with the local library to see whether 
this group may be on the Attorney General's List. 


SEARCHED 

SERIALIZE! 


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Buy US, Savings Bonds Regularly on the Payroll Savings Plan 



* - 



* monchly journal of fact 
and opinion published by 
ST. LOUIS METROPOLITAN 
AREA CITIZENS' COUNCIL 


? 


Rev. W.C. Barlow, Chairman 
Floyd G. Kitchen, Editor 

v, P.0. Sox %83, 


ST. LOUIS Afo* c %l 
METROPOLITAN v 1 ?, 

Citizen ' 

Kirkwood 22, Mo. 


**.»»«*■ 


1-2191 



This newsletter is a: 

COURTESY COPY 

On occasion, unless you Lndicate otherwise, you will receive com¬ 
plimentary bulletins* literature, etc. This, of course, obligates 
you in no way. 


If you desire to receive the attached monthLy newsletter the rate 
is just $1 per year.! Just fill out & return the slip with your $1. 

There is also a place on the slip to indicate if you would like 
further Information on becoming a member of your Citizens' Council. 
The dues are $2 a month and bring many benefits. 

Or, if you have some questions about the Council, just indicate 
what they are and we will do our best to give you an answer. 


LATE NEWS... 

' Although we had already gone to press with the new issue of the 
V ST. LOUIS METROPOLITAN CITIZEN, we felt it could not wait a month 
to inform you that the so-called.fair housing hill died without 
passage...added to the death of the bills to permit colored/white 
marriage--we feel this indicates something of a turning point. See 
Rev. Barlow's article on fair (mixed) housing in the newsletter. 


CITIZEN... P.0. Box 9683...(tear off and mail)...Kirkwood 22, Mo... 
Name:__ 


Address:_ 

City: * . ... Zorie ; State : _ 

(check proper box) 

/ / Attached is $1 for a I year subscription to the ST. LOUIS 

METROPOLITAN CITIZEN newsletter. 

/ 7 Please send me information on CITIZENS* COUNCIL membership, 

/ / I would like further information about: (please specify) 






























A monthly journal of fact 
and opinion published by 
ST, LOOTS METROPOLITAN 
AREA.CITIZENS’ COUNCIL 


ST. LOUIS 


METROPOLITAN 

Rev, W. C. Bar low , Chairman^ § § f £ j[ gf fg 
- —-p."6'. feox 9683', Kirkwood.22, Mo. 



CH 1-2191 


No. 4 


- 


'States’ Rights fit Racial Integrity" 


July. J965 


BILLS TO PERMIT COLORED/WHITE MARRIAGE DIE! ! ! 


H. B. 129 fU 132 to repeal aur anti-miscegenation law (forbidding marriage be¬ 
tween the races) have gone down to defeat. Everyone who in any way helped. . , 
circulated petitions, wrote letters, attended the hearing's--or whatever, is ' 
sincerely thanked. It.is interesting to note that when these bills were passed by 
the. House it rated page one, but their death in the Senate was buried in the media. 
From here on it is we who will be on the offensive as your Citizens' Council be¬ 
comes a movement of real consequence. Especially, we need to thank Rev. 
Barlow for his brilliant appearances before the committees and the news media 
in behalf of our cause. 


FAIR (MIXED) HOUSING NEXT BATTLE by Rev. W.C, Barlow, Chairman 

In March, during an appearance before a House Committee in Jefferson City, I 
stated that I did not believe the sole objective of the so r called "civil rights" mov- 
rnent was to obtain "equal opportunities. " ‘Since that time the Satanic'aUy ins¬ 
pired measure that would repeal Missouri's anti-miscegenation law has reared 
its head and gone down before our opposition. Now, "block-busting" tactics 
have been, announced and in some cases already practiced by integrationig.ts. 


1 have stated the personal conviction which I now repeat. . .that the objective of 
this whole lawless movement is hot integration* it is amalgamation! Such 
would be the inescapable conclusion if "block bbsting" and the resultant con- 
mingling of the races it brings is successful. ■ The insidiousness of using such 
tactics which would throw little children together in the same neighborhoods, 
schools and churches is hard to define in sufficiently repugnant, yet decent, 
terms- Some have argued that little children n don T t mind" this situation- -that 
they are without prejudice. To this 1 agree! BUT, I DO NOT AGREE THIS IS 
GOOD! ! I have purposefully and deliberately prejudiced my youngsters, 

, I have prejudiced them against lying t stealing f cheating, unclean behavious and 
had language, They are prejudiced against hot objects * 1 that would burn them, 

1 items that would poison them, etc. Prejudice in one form or another is a part 
of each of our everyday lives - , . and it is often t.o the. good of our general health 
. and welfare that this is so. Prejudice in favor of law and order vs what has 



















Page 2. . 

heretofore offered us security of person and property in our society. And, while 
Karl Marx taught the "equal 1 ’ (classless) society, . .this is not the teaching of 
Christianity. While Communists have been supporting so-called "civil rights” 
since the i 920 ’s and while they have announced their three-fold objective. . . 1) 
Corrupting our youth thru Hollywood; Z) Destroying true Christian reliance and 
faith in the Bible as the Word of God, and in Christ as the Son of God, thru the 
churches; and 3) Creating class and racial struggles. . . it is indeed amazing to 
me that so many lawmakers and church leaders profess complete iguornance of 
the Communist connection with the current struggle in our midst, This in spite 
of accusations of, and admission by, even such a prominent leader as M. L. K. 
that he had attended and lectured at a Communist training school. t 

Even some national magazines are aware of, and have printed, the connections 
as admitted by "civil rights" leaders with the Red movement. Yet, in spite of 
this the ungodly propagation of the "fatherhood of God and brotherhood of man 11 
hokum continue s to be promulgated Y and seemingly believed, by all too many. 
Leaders of the leftist National Council oi Churches have done their work well 
while Christian conservative groups such as Christian Crusade, 20th Century 
Reformation Hour, Life Line and others are fighting to maintain their tax-exempt 
status, and even their very life, while the darlings of the radical left proceed in 
comfort and assurance under the kindly eye of the current administration. 

These men have adopted a "social gospel" as a substitute for the Christian 
gospel of Jesus Christ. Many of these men question the reliability of the scrip¬ 
tures. . .and some even openly mock it. Is it any wonder when the basic source 
of all law and decency is rejected that lawlessness and indecency are found in 
our midst? And, that juvenile (and parental) delinquency has run rampant? All 
of the above being true, it does no good to theorize in the abstract unless we can 
perform in the concrete. This being so, T wish to alert you to the following 
ministers in the St. Louis County area who have publicy stated their endorsement 
of "fair" (mixed) housing. Is your pastor listed? If so does he speak for you?? 
Rev. Fischer. , . Concordia Luthern Church 
Rev. Wm, C. Cabler, r. St, Paul's United Church of Christ 
Rev. N. S. Geiger, . .St. Paul’s United Church of Christ 
Rev. EL Ewing. , .Ivy United Church of Christ 
Rev. Robert CuthilL . .Hope United Presbyterian 
Rev* David Reynolds... Holy Cross Lutheran 
Rev. Orville Johnson, „ .Mount Zion Methodist 
Rev. Paul Bolman. * . Hamilton Christian Church 

W. Wilder Towle* DD. . , Mo. Conference of United Church of Christ 
Rev* Charles Clavenna, . .St. Monicas Catholic Church 
Monsignor Clarence White. , *Sfc- Monicas Catholic Church 
Rev* J, C. O’Brian. . , St. (Richards Catholic Church 
Rabbi Marin Kantzenstein. * . Temple Israel 
Rabbi Stanley Garfein. . . Temple Israel 
Rev. Otto Sommer*. .Kirkwood United Church of Christ 



Page 3. . , 

It would be interesting to know bow many of these men live in integrated neigh¬ 
borhoods as opposed to parsonages near their churches which are at least in a 
semi-isolated atmosphere. It's also worth noting how many of these men are 
associated with the National Council nf Churches, * .all of the protestauts listed \ 
True Christians cannot and will not be hoodwinked and deceived into believing 
this is lr true" Christianity l Check carefully, . , if your pastor is listed maybe 
it’s time you found another church? If information or sustaining scripture for 
our position is needed please write us. What “free' 1 literature we have will r 
gladly be forwarded to you, _ „. ___ — 


POLITICAL DOLLARS b 


John Wilson 


(John Wilson is an author and lecturer of some note. His treatise on the race 
issue entitled THE BLACK LIE is a classic. It is available from the ST, LOUIS 
METROPOLITAN CITIZEN @ Z5< a copy,) 


FOR EVERY DOLLAR THAT THE GOVERNMENT GIVES YOU, THEY MUST 
FIRST TAKE TWO DOLLARS FROM YOU. A person would have to be a com¬ 
plete fool not to know that every time the Federal Government returns a dollar 
to you, they first must reach down into your pocket and remove two; so quit 
standing around with your hands out, If you do, you have got the ’’gimmies, 11 
not the ‘'gets" and this is a terrible disease which is sure to destroy our (once) 
great, wonderful country 


The worst part of this governmental "put and take" game is that each time your 
dollar makes the circle, the gang in Washington pinches off a goodly part to 
build stronger the chains that shackle and enslave you. Of course, with great 
crocodial tears running down their double faced cheeks, they tell you how great 
is the need fo r this g over nmental aid in^fchis^OTTihac worthy f ? j project; of the 
great suffering that is being experienced by the people; that you cannot possibly 
do this job thru local efforts, , . and you believe this story; you believe that if 
you sent your two dollars to Washington that the dollar they return can do the 
job so much better than you could have done with it in the first place. 


I have yet to see a job done by the government, that cannot be done 
business and enterprise better and far more economically, Knowin 
we all do, why do we permit the expansion of these governmental of 
all over the land into every hamlet and cross roads, : Don*t we reali 
every agent they place in our community has many jobs besides the 
ostensibly placed there to do. He is there always to brainwash you 
up votes for the party* * , he is placed there as a listening post of the 
and to keep the slaves in line* 


& - 


rummage sale report 


Page 4, 


All the ladies {and gentlemen) who participated in the Council's 2 day rummage 
sale are to be congratulated. They made $137. 23 to advance the cause. To 
all who took part we extend a sincere. . , THANK YOU ? 


GENERAL MEETING 

On Sunday, June 27th, a regular meeting of the 
St. Louis Metropolitan Area Citizens* Council'was 
held at the John Doherty Memorial Hall \n Baden. 
Principal speaker was Mr. Mark And re w s t chair* 
mai> of the Missouri Conereas of Conservatives. 


Mr, Andrews was a delegate to the recent National 
Congress of Conservatives in Chicago which has 
drafted a Declaration of Principles as a basis for 
uniting the conservative movement into a cohesive 
political force, 


I ' 1 


The Missouri Congress of Conservatives is hold- 
ing a state organizing convention featuring national 
leaders of the conservative movement, in Jefferson 
City on August 28th at the Ramada Inn. All ded¬ 
icated conservatives are invited to take part. . . not 
only to hear the great speakers but to be able to 
participate in the formation oi a real conservative 
political force in our slate. Pot further informat¬ 
ion you can contact Mr- Andrews at 145 Grand 
Ave, , Kirkwood 22, Mo. 


(tear off here) 

Rev, W.C, Barlow, Chairman 

St, Louis Metropolitan Area Citizens 1 Council 

P. O, Box 9683 

Kirkwood 22, Mo, 

£ _/ ^ enclose $1 for a i year subscription to the 

St, Louis Metropolitan Citizen, 

L _ [ I enclose $ t o advance the cause, 

7 / I would like: 



Name; 

Address: 

City: 


/Urn Rosenthal, above, *»© t& 
her teens when ahe elopod %ntb a 
Jamies negro whoa sho found 
cooking Rt e farm workercacp 
At South Deerfield, Mass, Re 
hod entered the U, S. a fev 
years earlier/ 

Sho Is now cm trial . to * 
Springfield, Mhos* dietriet 
SOurt, charged vlth strangling 

five of her six mulatto child¬ 
ren t 

Ufloele Burroughs, who lived 
opstAira over the death opart* 
reported t h*c the dig- 
trough: wether celled her on the 
telephone to report * •Tve Still * - 
ad my babies. , I didn’t vast to 
do it, bat I Had to,* 1 

She and her has band lived lit 
A ttix&d Springfield neighborhood 
where there have bean frequent 
(multiple hcsicide#* 

THE COUHCILOR 20 June, 1965 


State: 



FD-36 (Rev.' S-22-64)* J 



# 


F. B’ i 
Date: 


9-28-65 


Transmit the following in 
Via AIRTSL 


(Type in plaintext or code). 

AIR MAIL. ' " ■' 


(Priority) 


TO: 

FROM; 

Subject 


SAC, ST. LOUIS 

KANSAS CITY (157-new) P 


i^c, 


WHITE CITIZENS COUNCIL, aka 
Citizens Council 

RM ■ • • 


(6 6 


- 


& 




An article in the Kansas City Star, daily Kansas 
City, Misso uri newspaper, dated September 22 1965, re¬ 
flects that I l of a chapter 

of captioned council in St. Louis, Missouri, stated in 
Kansas City, Missouri on September 22, 1965, a member of 
his chapter was recently in Kansas City contacting several 
persons who might be interested i n formin g an organi¬ 
za tional chapter.in Kansas City, f Iwas ide ntified 


asT 


] 


said his chapter support; states' rights 
and racial integrity, that is, segregation of races; He 
commented that the Civil Rights movement is Communist 
inspired, that his organization does not accept Negro 
metiers, and new chapters may draw from groups such as 
National States' Rights Party, the John Birch Society, 
and the new Congress of Conservatives, 'wh ich hope s to 
set up a third national political party, f | denies 

connection with the Minutemen. He expressed hope that 
a Kansas City, chapter-might be formed by the first, of 
1966 and commented .that a■ similar effort to form a new 


chapter is being made in.Springfield, Missouri, 



2 St. Louis 
2 Kansas City 
HKJ:ef 

C4) T 


Approved: 


Special Agent in Charge 


Sent.. 



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The. St.. Louis; Office Is requested- to furnish 
anv backgroun d inforroafion available concerning ! 1 

l and captioned organization* particularly if . 
any investigation has been conducted or is pending concerning 
them, together with the results of any characterizations ■- 
or tbumb-nail sketches. ... . ..... 




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jefr^ationist Council Plans Five New Chapter in Missouri, 


By ROBERT H. COLLINS 
Of the Post-Dispatch Staff 

Pi a ns for expanding the seg- 
r regationist white Citizens Coun- 
|C cif into five principal Missouri 
t cities were disclosed yesterday 
by the Rev, W, C. Barlow, new 
president of the St. Louis Chap¬ 
ter of the council 
-The Rev, Mr, Barlow has re¬ 
placed John H. Sutherland, St. 
Louis attorney, who resigned 
the presidency because his fre¬ 
quent out-of-town business trips 
were interfering with his council 
duties. 

Kansas City, Jefferson City, 
Springfield, Cape Girardeau' and 
$L Joseph were named by the 
Rev. Mr. Barlow as the cities 
where chapters of the Citizens 
Council will be organized. 

A Kansas City chapter is in 
the process of being formed, he 
said. Chapters of the White Citi¬ 
zens Council are in operation in 
all southern states, in several 
mid western states and. on the 
West coast. 

Calls Prospects Excellent 
} "The prospects tor growth of 
h the Citizens Council in Missouri 
1 are excel lent,” the Rev, Mr. 

1 Barlow said. "Eventually we 
! hope to have chapters in cities Jc 
i and towns all over the state. We 5 
V are growing because people are.,j 
j 1 learning that we are not the 1 
■j bleary-eyed, fanatical organiza- 
| fcton we have'-been pictured iw* 
1| being by some of the news^ 

; media. 

"The members of the Citizens 
Council are not rednecks," the 
Rev. Mr. Barlow said. "We'ne 
’ not interested in burning crosses 
or lynching anyone. We're 
not interred in demonstrating 
or lying in the streets or engag-, 
Ing in law-breaking in any man- 
i ner We believe in taking our 
r grievances to our lawmakers 
and to our courts. We believe 
in constitutional government for j 
all men, not for just some men 



the iaws oFtfils^country will beTf 
'obeyedJ‘ &\ 

The Rev, Mr, Barlow said 1 
there would be "far less racial 
strife" in the United States "if 
Negroes were under the leader¬ 
ship of "men like Roy Wilkens 
of the NAACP, who apparently 
has a sense of responsibilaty and!. 
believes in law and reason rather 
thartf violence in the streets*" 4 
i "The position of the Citizens 
Council Is similar to that of the f 
John Birch Society' in tihat wej. 
believe the dvil rights agitation; 
is Communist-inspired/* the Rev, \ 
Mr. Barlow said. 

Police Deserve Praise \ 
In general, he continued, the 
white Citizens Council believes 
that "the police in all areas of; 
racial strife deserve pnaase for, 
the restraint they have shown in f 
the face of almost unbelievable ; 
provocation by Negro mobs, who . 
have cursed, spit on and other* l 


taunted officers of the 


a Poat*D]ft0$achi PtMjto&mphiir 

The Rev, W, C. Barlow 


r He 'declined 



wise 
law." 

Without these officers, .the 
Rev! Mr. Barlow continue^ "the 
country would be enveloped in \ 
a horror of, uncontrolled mur- j 

feict membership total o&ani. 6 %JT> 
estimate; "We are asked nrf toj . U <> st f ss ^ ^ Incov 

divulge ttat information/’' he 1 , "" eVWy . tur ? ll th>t , wh "* pe0p ' 
r j ere armmg themselves in quiet 

The white Citizens Council here! an fw and dfit ™ ation a(tet 


as elsewhere, is "extremely con-.j 
corned over the trend toward 11 
anarchy in this country under! 
the leadership of such men as 
Martin Luther King/' the Rev.: 
Mr* Barlow said. The Rev, Dr.! 
King is head of the Southern 
Christinas Leadership Confer-, 
*nce p ' a civil rights organization., 
"King is Daigely responsible 
for the Bawbreakimg, looting and! 
ravishing wow so prevalent in 
this country," the Rev. Mr,,Bar- 
low continued, 

' Cites LOs-Angeles Riots 
"Under the guise of a Chris¬ 
tian minister, Martin Luther 


..„„ „_King has stirred racial hatred in 

We hope to promote government, this nation to a dangerous level, 
not tear it down." * Re and Lyndon Johnson are 

125 at First Meeting (equally responsible for the bioo^ 

About 125 persons attended the) shed and millions of dollars dam- 


first meeting of the pitizena 
Council here last Oct. ll/Today, 
the Rev, Mr. Barlow said, "there 
ere 3000 persons on our masting 
lists, most of whom either are 
members or are sympathetic to[ 
Wr ration 


age in the Los Angeles riots 
"King has proclaimed that his 
subjects wiM not obey any Jaws 
that they consider unjust* They 
will decide themselves what is 
good and what is bad. Johnson is 
equally responsible for not tell- 
in g King differently and then 
American 


watching the Congo situation in 
Los Angeles." 

The two principal objectives 
of the Citizens Council are j 
"states' rights and racial in-' 
tegrlty," the Rev. Mr, Barlow j 
said, 

Government a Frankenstein 

"The Federal Government has 
become a Frankenstein swallow¬ 
ing up the states that in the 
original concept were supposed 
to control the central govern¬ 
ment. If constitutional govern¬ 
ment is not restored, we are go¬ 
ing to have either a dictatorship 
or we will be taken over by the 
Commun ists without a shot being 
fired* This* will come about 
through socialization of every 
aspect of our life," 

/The Rev. Mr* Barlow said that 
the Bible teaches "racial separa- 
lion," In support of his and the*) 
Citizens Council's conviction on \ 
that matter, he cited verses from I . 
Genesis, Leviticus, Numbers, 
Deuteronomy, Joshua, Jeremiah,;’ 
Malachi, Matthew and Hebrews.^' 

"The lawmaking courts of the[ L 
United Stated ndw“ largely made/, 
up of politically appjpnted left* 1 
whvge^f-^ ve conv 


(Indicate page, name at 

“SC Ms'm'obe- 

Democrat, 5t. 
Louis, Missouri 
— St. Louis Post- 
Dispatch , St. 
Louis, Missouri 
—The St. Louis 
Argus, St. Louis 
Missouri;. ", 


r. 


Detl.i ^ 
Edition i 
Author: 
Editort 
Titlei 


ChatacUn 

or 

CIcMllleaUoAi 

Submitting Olllc.i St. LOU 
1 I Being In ireo ligated 




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y ignored til4 t 

they have violated the religious 
freedom of millions of Ameri¬ 
cans by forcing them into inte¬ 
grated situations/' the Rev. Mr. 
Barlow said. 

f “The objective of this whole 
lawless movement is not integra¬ 
tion.^ It:4s amalgamatiim/;. Ho 

sa/d that the""sai;amcal)y.1wpir ; 
, ed measure in the last session 
of the Missouri General Assem¬ 
bly that would have repealed the 
‘^state's anti-miscegenation ■ lawv 
[went down to defeat before dir 
; opposition^ 1 t | 

: The Citizens Council presented 
,«i> a legislative committee p£?> 


Vi 


^_Jth several thousand 

names^lipposmg the measure, 
;tl>e Rev, Mr, Barlow said. 

V Some members of the St, Louis 
chapter of the Citizens Council 1 
belong to the National States 
lights Party, and some belong 
the John Birch Society, he 
laid. The NSRP is a militant 
[ y &htl - Negro, and anti - Semitic 
f 



organization 


The Rev. Mr. Barlow is pastor 
of Calvary Bapttist Tabernacle, 
an independent Baptist Church, f 
in EllisviHe, He and Mrs, Bar- 
low, 1523 Clayton road, Eilisvillo, l 
have four children, 12, 10, & arfl 
4 years old. *He is a graduate 
the Baptist Bible College it 
Spring Pie Id, Mo, £ 













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11/5/65 


WHITE CITIZENS COUNCIL 

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The files of the St. Louis Division disclose that 
the St,; Louis Metropolitan Area Citizen Council (SLMACC) held 
an organizational meeting 10/10/54 at the Hall of the/ 
Electrical Workers, Local #1, 5850 Elizabet h Ave ., Sfc. Louis, 
No.; that a St. Louis lawyer named JO HN H, SUTHERLAND was 
the organi zer and temporary chairman; 1 ~l 

J of the organization committee. Its address was 
P. P . Box C. Qravols Station. St. Louis, Mo. 63116. Speaker s 

| ~|for the Citizens Councils of Maryland. Washington 

' tin 


and Virginia and I , I to the Ci tizens 

fismtils of America and [_____ 

J About 125 people attended.SUTHERLAND announced at 


]■ 


this meeting that he was making an effort to have Governor 
OKORQE C. WALLACE of Alabama appear in St. Louis. The organi¬ 
zation distributed a pamphlet captioned "Why Must St. Louis'- • 
Metropolitan Area Organize?" which outlined the racial situation 
in St. Louis as "For the past several years local white 
moderates have attempted to appease the organized colored 
agitation groups with tragic results. Their well lntentlohed 
efforts have served only to wet the agitators insatiable " 
appetites for power. Like Hitler and Khrushchev, the collectivists 
have announced their program. They will settle for nothing 
less than total integration of every residential area, every 
social gathering and every privately owned business enterprise. 

The white majority must act before state coercion prevents us 
from doing so." The leaflet asserted that coamunltles with 
strong citizen councils have maintained freedom of choice in' 
racial matters while unorganized cities have "surrendered 
supinely." 4 




The organization held another meeting on 12/4/64 
at American Legion Hall,. University City, Mo., at which THURMAN 

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3KN3IN0, Executive Vice President of the Southern States 
Industrial Council, Nashville, Tennessee,. w$s the speaker. 


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In April, 1965 # the organisation distributed a 
petition for signatures which was addressed to "Members 
of the Missouri legislature" and which stated that the 
undersigned wished to go on record as being opposed to the 
repeal of the Missouri Antl~Hisoegenetlon Law and urged 

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1 has been in attendance at National States 

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The September*' 1965 issue of the-St*; Louis Post* ; 
pianatn ii new spaper contained a reported Interview with 

I which I _ _ _ l liaid i*eplaced6ouncli President 

JOHN H. SUTHERLAND, St. Louis attorney, who reside d because 
business trips Interfered with his council duties. I I 

was quoted as saying that plans were made to expand the 
council Into 5 other Missouri cities; Kansas City# Jefferson 
City, Springfield, Cape Girardeau and St. Joseph* He said 
members of the council are not rednecks* "We’re not interested 
In burning crosses or lynching anyone. We’re not Interested 
in demonstrating or lying In the streets or engaging ... 

In law-breaking In any manner. We believe in taking our 
grievances to our courts. We believe in constitutional 
government for all men, not for Just some men. We hope to 
promote government, not tear It down." He said the council - 
was concerned over the trend toward anarchy under the leadership 
of such men as MARTIN LUTHER KING and he holds KING responsible ■ 
for the "lawbreaking, looting and ravishing now so prevalent 
In this country." He said KINO and President LYNDON D. JOHNSON . 
are equally responsible as KING has proclaimed that his 
subjects will not obey laws the y consid er unjust and JOHNSON £. 
has not told them differently. ] | praised efforts of the = ; : v ; 

police to dealing with civil rights disturbances and expressed 
oonccm over the number of white people arming themselves 
In quiet anger. He 3&id the council believes this civil rights'... . 
agitation Is Communist inspired; that the two principal objectives 
of the Citizens Council are "states rights and raol&l Integrity"; 
that the Bible teaches racial separation, but the U. S. Courts, ;- ; 
now made up of politically appointed left-wingers, have 
Ignored the fact that they have violated the religious freedom 
of millions of Americans by forcing them into integrated 
situations, *'■. 


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Ssfma Sheriff 


V Sheriff James G, Clark of Sel¬ 
ma, . Ala,, and Louis Hollis, of 
} Jack-son, Miss., national director j 
of the white Citizens Council will j 
' speak at a program at 7:30 p.m*, i 
i Nov. 20, in Assembly Hall No. 1, j 
Kiel Auditorium, sponsored by | 
the Sl Louis Metropolitan Citi- j 
- zens Council. 

A- spokesman for the Council 
said tiie program will be open I 
to the "white public" and iifrl 
groes will not be a dmitted, Dan ■ 

1 Morgan, assistant manager of 
’Kiel Auditorium, said tiie room, 
.which seats 600, was rented to 
! the group for a meeting and that > 
the auditorium management had __ 
no knowledge of what the pro- f 
: gram was or who the speakers j 


(Indicate page, name of 
newspaper, city and & Cate,) 

St'. Louis Globe^ 
3A Democrat, St 

- Louis, Missouri 

St., Louis Post- 
Dispatch, St. 

— Louis, Missouri 
The St. Louis 
Argus, St f Louis, 

— Missouri * 


Date; 11-10-65 

Edition: 

Author: 

Editor; 

Title: 


Character: 

or 

Classification: 
Submitting Office 


St, Louis 

| | Being Investigated 




SEAJBHE 
SERIN 17 


^ ■' 1 

M 

1 

MOV 10 1965 | 

FBI—8T. LOUIS 

. . ^ 

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(Mount Clipping In Spoe* B.low) 


! 


I 1 \f§rAuditorium 

I1IVI nuuiivnuill Barlow had repeated that Ne¬ 


groes would be excluded. 


Commission Bars' 



The 17-member Municipal 
Auditorium Commission, which 
regulates the use of the Kiel 
Auditorium, Wednesday barred 
its use by a segregationist group 
and sen* back a $75 hiring fee. 

The grpup, the St. Louis Area 
Metropolitan Citizen’s Council, 
had hired the hall for Nov. 20. 
V Its president, the Rev. W. C. 
Barlow, had said that no Negroes 
would be admitted to the meet¬ 
ing, which had as its principal 
speaker Sheriff James G. Clark, 
of Selma, Ala., a prominent 
figure among segregationists. 


“This commissfon does not at¬ 
tempt to censor or restrict the 
nature or content of the various 
meetings and discussions which I 
are conducted at Kiel Audito¬ 
rium,” he wrote. "However, art 
tenants must comply with the 
regulations regarding the .opera¬ 
tion of the auditorium and the 
laws of the City of St. Louis.” 

In 1954 the auditorium com¬ 
mission barred the use of the 
main hall to the Black Muslim : 
movement, after the St. Louis 
leader Clyde X requested that 
the movement should be allowed 
to provide its own ushers and 
search all those entering the 
building. 

same year the commission 
permitted the use of a hall for a 
•thinly attended meeting ad¬ 
dressed by James Jackson. Com¬ 
munist newspaper editor. 


VIOLATE LAW 


BARLOW COMMENT 








(Indicate page, name of 

"TC £oulV‘'m’obe- 

Democrat, St• 
/ 3 #,ouiB, Missouri 
—St. Louis Post- 
Dispatch , St. 
Louis, Missouri 
— The St. Louis 
Argus, St. Louif 
_Missouri 


» 


I 

\ 


The Auditorium Commission, 
which has 15 white and two • 
Negro members, prohibited the 
group from hiring the G00*seat 
Assembly Hall No. 1, on the 
grounds that it would contravene 
the law of the city. 

In a letter to Mr* Barlo w, of 
1523 Clayton rd., EHi sville, the “ 
OammiisSTow Chatrmarr.^Leo A. 
Matrinn, says: 

“The City Of St. Louis pro¬ 
hibits discrimination or the ex- i 
elusion of any person solely be- > 
cause of race, color or creed in I 
the use of property leased from • 
the city as set forth in section 
! 121.095, revised code of the City | 
of St. Louis. 1960. 

“The facts as stated by-you j 
In this matter clearly Indicate ] 
that the Negro public will be * 
excluded from your meeting 
on Nov. 20. Such proposed dis¬ 
crimination clearly violates the 
above quoted law.” 

The commission’s decision wa9 [ 
taken Wednesday at an emer- , 
gency meeting attended by six 
white members and one Negro 
member. 

It had been called at the re¬ 
quest of the Kiel manager, Mario 
Mamati. 

Mr. Mamati had Wednesday 
questioned Mr. Barlow about his 
published statement that the 1 
Nov. 20 meeting would be open 
to-“the white publl ql’ and th at ! 
“Negroes wHl not fce adrhTttecl.” 


: 


Commenting Wednesday mght^l 
Mr. Barlow said: “We will, of 
course, make other arrange¬ 
ments. It’s perfectly all right to 
let the hall to the Communist 
Party, and yet they forbid it to 
*onest citizens. The trouble, is 
fre’ve got a liberal admtni 


down there, who are 
rested in promoting the few¬ 
ness of the Civil Rights dem- 
trators." , * 


jr- -- 









/ *• 



Dalai & 

Edition! 

Authors 

Editor! 

Titles 

Character! 

or 

Claeelflcatlom 

Submitting Offices St© 1#©^ 


v: v-t * 

■ ■ g 

■ • - 

* * v . y • • 


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n Being Investigated 


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SEARCHED^ 7 ......INDEXED 

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LU. SI LOWS 









































omomi. tot m wo. uj 

«*¥ mi GOniON 

01* ppm 0 14! Cfl) 101-11.1 


* 

UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 

Memorandum 


TO 


SAC, ST. LOUIS 


date: 


11-16-65 


FROM : 


SA [ 


bfi 

b7C 


SUBJECT: 


ST. LOUIS AREA METROPOLITAN 
CITIZENS COUNCIL 
RACIAL MATTERS 


Intelligence Unit, 



b<j 

b7C 


] 


On 11-16-65, Sgt. I 

St. Louis PD, telephonically advised that captioned organiza¬ 
tion planned on holding a meeting at the St. Louis Baptist 
Temple, 4329 Gibson, Saturday evening, 11-90-65. n.nimn enciag 
at 7:30 P.M.. having as its principal speaker, 1 

I ~1 a prominent figure amongst segregatlonalists. 

In connection with this meeting, the Student NonViolent 
Coordinating Committee was passing out leaflets on the campus 
of Washington U urging people to participate in the demonstra¬ 
tion protesting the above meeting. 

1 - 

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Buy US. Savings Bonds Regularly on the Payroll Savings Plan 
























* 


11/17/05 , 




AIRTSL 

TOl 

FROM: 

SUBJECT: 


■ t •, i 

AIRMAIL 


DIRECTOR, FBI 

SAC, ST. LOUIS (157-582) 

ST. LOUIS METROPOLITAN 
AREA CITIZENS COUNCIL 

RM 


Enclosed are eight copies of a LHM concerning 
a scheduled meeting of tbs above*captioned organization. . 

which plana to have |_1 

apeah In St. Louis on 11/20/03. 

Enclosed LHM la being aarked ^conFldeatlal” 
inasmuch aa it contains information from ! I 

I I of continuing value, 

the Identification ofwhlch would compromise their future 
effectiveness. 


t)2 

i>6 

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The sou rces used in the LHM are 


The Bureau will be kept advised* 



r 


3 - Bureau (KNC. - 8) (RM) 

1 * St, Louis 
ETBigmr 

(4) LHM disseminated U. S. Secret Service, SLMO.; 

ONI, OSI, INTO, and SLPD via Form FD-342/gmr 

, ‘J " • 


b6 

bic 

USA, 


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/ 























UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 
Federal Bureau of Investigation 

In Reply, 

Please Refer St. Louis, Missouri 

to File No. 


#1015205 


11 / 10/2005 


November 17, 1965 


DECLASSIFIED SV auc/ 6030 9 /1 am/mlt/kbr 
OH 11 ID 2005 



ST. LOUIS METROPOLITAN AREA CITIZENS COUNCIL 




an article in the St. Louis 


On September 19 


1965 


Jidentified 

ouis chapter of the White 
^stated that an organizing-, 
up chanters in other Missouri 


as |_| of th e 3 

Citizens Council, in which | " 

campaign was to be started to 


cities; that he stated that prospects for growth in Missouri 


are excellent; and that the two principal objectives of the 


council, are "states* rights and racial integrity." 


bis 


An article in the St. Louis Pos t-Di spatch issue 
of November 11,. 1965, reported that the Municipal Auditorium 
Commissi on, which r egulates the use of Kiel Auditorium, had 
canceled I [ reservations for the November 20, 1965, 

meeting on the grounds that its use by a segregationist group 
would contravene the law of.the city. 


hi 



Exc 1 ucfSrd^fr om^tosr, a t ic 
downg'r ad 


SERIALIZED 

INDEXED^ 


This document contains neither recommendations nor conclusions 
of the FBI. It is the property of the FBI and is loaned 
to your agency; it and its contents are not to be distributed 
outside your agency. 






ST. LOUIS METROPOLITAN AREA CITIZENS COUNCIL. 


I 1 announced in the St. Louis Post- 

Dlspatch issue of November 14, 1965, that the’ meeting would 
be held “at. the St. Louis Baptist Temple, 4249 Gibson Avenue, 
St, Louis, Missouri, on November 20, 1965, instead of at 
Kiel Auditorium and that legal action to determine the con¬ 
stitutionality of the city’s law that prohibits segregated 
meetings of any kind in Kiel Auditorium was being considered. 

On November 16, 1995, a group identifying itself 
as Friends of SNCC distributed flyers on the Washington Uni¬ 
versity, St. Louis, Missouri, campus,' which read as follows: 


"PROTEST FOR FREEDOM 

_ "On Saturday, No vember 20, 1 I 

] ~1 will speak at a meeting spon-- 

sored by the Whit© Citizens Council of St. Louis, 
an avid racist group. This meeting has been re¬ 
stricted to the 'white public' and among welcomed 
and expected groups are the National States' Rights 
Party and the Klu Klux Klan, extreme racist organi¬ 
zations, and the John Birch Society, Because 
of an enforcement of a city ordinance prohibiting 
such discrimination in public buildings, by Mayor 
Cervantes, the meeting will not be held In Kiel 
Auditorium but elsewhere in the city. How ever. 
we shall r egister a protest for freedom to I 1 

I wherever he may speak! JI 

"We, as concerned students and St. Louis 
citizens, are voicing our protest to the segre¬ 
gations s t brutaliti es and atrocities co noe r ne d 
with the actions of I I He has 

used his 'nightstick, pistol and cattle prod* 
to a 11 ac k hurn an beings as If t hey were animals. 

On March 7, 1965, before the Selma to Montgomery 
March, he used these bloody tactics to turn back 
Negroes as they attempted to cross the Edmund 
Pettus Bridge from Selma to highway SO leading 
to Montgomery. According to the St, Louis Fost- 
Dispatch^ Nov. 9, 'the 220 pound \ I 

arrestsd~and jailed hundreds of Negroes who tried 
to register in Dallas County An the weeks proce ed¬ 
ing the Selma to Montgomery March,' 



























COW 5' 


ST. LOUIS METROPOLITAN AREA CITIZENS COUNCIL 


"We are protesting his brutal attack on de¬ 
fenseless humans and demand, human dignity and 
respect for every American citizen, We are backed 
by the most vital documents of the United States, 
the Constitution and the Bill of R ights. We feel 
it is our duty as citizens to show ! ~| that 

we will not stand idly by and allow him to spread 
his racist policies throughout the United States 
without opposition. He is in the minority and 
we must show him this by surpassing the attendance 
of his meeting by our own pickets, We call on 
all concerned American citizens to support the 
cause of human dignity and equality and join us 
in this protest!.'!" 


A characterization of th 
Hois Club is attached. 


The above information is being communicated to 
the United States Secret Service, United States Attorney 
ONI, 031, J.NTC, and the St, Louis Police Department. 




• • 



A-P-P-E-N-D-I-X 


W.E.B. DU BOIS CLUBS OF AMERICA 

ST. LOUIS CLUB . b7c 

-=- bvg 



Since its inception, the St. Louis Club DCA has 


been under the complete influence, domination and control 
of the Missouri CP. 



4 


4 


4 






*■ 





bG 

blC 



btD 


A second source has advised that the founding con¬ 
vention for the new youth oi'ganization was held from June 19-21, 
1964 at 150 Golden Gate Avenue, San Francisco, California, at 
which time the name W.E.B. DU BOIS CLUBS OF AMERICA was 
adopted Approximately 500 delegates from throughout the 
United States attended this convention. The aims of this 
organization, as set forth in the preamble to the constitution, 
are, "It is our belief that this nation can best solve its 
problems in an atmosphere of peaceful co-existence, complete 
disarmament and true freedom for all peoples of the world, 
and that these solutions will be reached mainly through the 
united efforts of all democratic elements in our country, 
composed essentially of the working people allied in the 
unity of Negroes and other minorities with whites. We further 
fully recognize that the greatest threat to American democracy 
comes from the racist and right wing forces in coalition with 
the most reactionary sections of the economic power structure, 
using the tool of anti-communism to divide and destroy the 
unified struggle of the working people. As young people in 
the forces struggling for democracy, we shall actively strive 
to defeat these reactionary and neo-fascist elements and to 
achieve complete freedom and democracy for all Americans, 
thus enabling each individual to freely choose and build the 
society he would wish to live in. Through these struggles 
we feel the American people will realize the viability of 
the socialist alternatives " 



# 


# 



at. vms aETROPotiTAK area cmzgffs COUNCIL 


2 

Appendix, (Coat'd) 


W.E.I3, DuBois Clubs of America 


The constitution further states that this new 


organization shall be a membership organization open to 
individuals, or if five or more people so desire, a chapter can 
be formed which shall in turn be guided by the policies and 
principles of the parent organization. 

As of October, 1965, the headquarters of the DCA was 
located at 954 McAllister Street, San Francisco, California, 









FD-35Q (Rev. 7-16*63) 


% 


t> 



It Clipping In Space Below) 


The sheriff of Selma* Alabama 
is scheduled to epeaH h§re S&lur* 
day night, In an appearance spon- ! 
sored by the local White Citizens 
Council, 

Sheriff James G, Clark will ap¬ 
pear at the St, Louis Baptist 
Temple, 4249 Gibson, Civil rights 
groups, Including ACTION have 
already Indicated they plan picket - 
protest demonstrations around the 
Temple, during the appearance of 
Sheriff Clark, . t \ 

Reverend W. C, Barlow, presj-J 


(Continued from Page l-A) 
the Baptist Temple—will be jim- 
crow, no Negroes allowed* 

It was this same raw declara¬ 
tion that led to swift cancellation 
of Sheriff Clark's appearance at 
Kiel Auditorium, after it was first 
announced he would appear there. 
The Municipal Auditorium Com¬ 
mission immediately revoked the 
meetings permit. 

Now, the St, Louis Chapter of 
the White Citizens Council, ac¬ 
cording to Reverend Barlow is 
considering legal action to deter¬ 
mine this legality of the Munici¬ 
pal Auditorium Commission's 
action in canceling their segre- 


: i 

gated meeting in Kiel Auditorium, 
Local lawyers who are members 
of the Council and the Council 
headquarters in Jackson, Missis¬ 
sippi, believe that the city's or¬ 
dinance prohibited segregated 
meetings of any kind in Kiel Audi¬ 
torium is unconstitutional because 
It prevents freedom of assembly. 

In a California speech earlier 
this week, attended by citizens 
of both races, Sheriff Clark was 
booed off the podium before he ut¬ 
tered one sentence. 

Sheriff Clark rose to national 
Infamy as the man who arrested 
and jailed hundreds of civil rights 
workers in the weeks immediately 
preceding theSelma-Montgomery 

march. ^-- 

things that occurred on 


that march which Sheriff Clark 
knows about and is Prepared to 
discuss are things which the i *- 
cal participants apparently do not 
want revealed here at home. Rev, 1 
Barlow commented." “It is my 
belief that their opinions were 
made toown to Mayor Cervantes, 
and that pressure was put on t«m 
to have our meeting cancelled. 

"We have a rather strange situ¬ 
ation, to say the least when the 
Communist element can meet m 
Kiel Auditorium and the Audi¬ 
torium Commission does not can¬ 
cel them out but prohibits use 
of a hall by decent citizens. 
Rev, Barlow asserted. ■ 

- in 19G4 James Jackson, editor 
of the Communist newspaper, 
THE WORKER, spoke in the Audi¬ 
torium, That meeting^however, 

was nqt^segregated, ^ / 


(Indicate page, name of 

new6 §V," fifcHViftbbe- 

Democrat, St. 
Louis t Missouri 
—St, Louis Post- 
Dispatch. St 
Louis/ Missouri , 
—>The St. Louis 
V Argus, St Louis 
A Missouri 




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Date: 
Edit ton: 
Au thor; 
Editor; 
TiiLei 


Character 

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Submitting Oftlce: 


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)V1 -J 1965 

FBI—ST. U3UIS 






















































FD-36 (Rev. 5-22-64) 


m 


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ie> 


FBI 

Date: 

PU>*> Te*T~ 


Via 


) €')<Q \/ p?'' 


(Type in plaintext or Code) 

- /J@6?y0 l 


(Priority). . 


I 


URGENT 11/20/65 TED 
TO DIRECTOR 
FROM ST. LOUIS 


I 


S' 



ST. LOUIS METROPOLITAN AREA CITIZENS COUNCIL. RM. 

RE ST. LOUIS AIRTEL ELEVEN SEVENTEEN LAST. 


ADDRESSED ABOVE CAPTIONED ORGANIZATION 


b6 

b7'„ 


TONIGHT. APPROXIMATELY ONE HUNDRED SEVENTYFIVE PICKETS DEMONSTRATED 
OUTSIDE ST. LOUIS BAPTIST TEMPLE WHERE 


SPOKE. TWO 


INDIVIDUALS ARRESTED FOR DISORDERLY CONDUCT. NO OTHER DISORDER. 
LHM FOLLOWS. 


END 
WA. . 


ROfi^ 


SttBCHED ! 

MltllZto' 

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Approved: 




Special Agent in Charge . 


Sent ) I OZ^- M Per 


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03A (41 cm 4 01 —11.4 


UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 

Memorandum 

to : SAC, ST. LOUIS date: 11/22/65 

from : SA | 


subject: ST. LOUIS METROPOLITAN AREA 

CITIZENS COUNCIL 
RM 

SL 157-582 

FRIENDS OF SNCC 
RM 

SL 100-19355 


On 11/17/65, 


Security Officer, 


Wa shington University. St . Louis, Mo., furnished to 
SA I I two copies of a flier captioned 


"Protest for Freedom” which were distributed on the Washing¬ 
ton University Campus on 11/16/65 by Friends of SNCC, 


One copy is being placed in the 1-A serial of 
157-582 (St. Louis Metropolitan Area Citizens Council) 
and the other in 100-19355 (Friends of SNCC). 


r 1 - 157-582 .. 

f*-100-19355 


RTH/rc 




















File • Serial Charge Out 

FD-5 (Rev. 12JS>6 0) 




Fill 



Date 




Class/ Case No. Last Serial 

CD Pending Cl Closed 


Date 







Date charged 


Employee 


Local ion 

























































OPTIONAL FORA* NO. iff 
6014-164 


# 

UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 

Memorandum 

TO ! SAC, ST. LOUIS (157-582) 

prom. : SA l 



date: 12/1/65 


b£ 

bir 


subject: METROPOLITAN AREA CITIZENS COUNCIL 

RM 

The 9/19/65 issue of the St, Louis Post-Dispatch 
newspaper contains a photograph of | 

| I of the Metropolitan Area Citizens Council. T^fo 

copies have been made and are being placed in the 1A serial 
of this file. 


(p- 157-582 
^RTH:gmr 
( 1 ) 


/srX jr/ 20-Jy 






FD-3G5 (Rev. 5-14-64) 


# 4 

F B I 

r * 

Date: ! 1/22/65 


Transmit the following in 



(Type in plaintext or code) 


Via 


AIRTEL 



(Priority) 



Director, FBI 


Subject; ST* LOUIS METROPOLITAN AREA 
CITIZENS COUNCIL 


□ BOMBING MATTERS - THREATS g] RACIAL MATTERS 


Re St* Louis tel U/20/65 


Enclosed are eight copies of a letterhead memorandum 


One copy Is enclosed for the information of Mobile 
and copies have been sent to the U. $. Attorney, St* Louis; 
Secret Service* St* Louis; Region VI, 113th INTO Group* St. 
Louis; ONI* St. Louis* and OSX* St. Louis. 

The source in the attached is 


1 - Bureau ^Enclosures 8) 

1 - Mobile (Knc. 1) 
% - St* Louis 
RTK/rc 
(3) / 


g&BCHED_ 

BERlA'.lZto" 


Approved: - Sent _M Per 

Special Agent in Charge , 








Si. Louis, Missouri 

h r A , * , X ’ . 

November 22, 1965 


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BT. L09tS METROPOLITAN 
AREA CITIZENS COUNCIL 

T \\ ,vV. , ;> * 


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On November 2p, 1965, a source, mho fras furnished 


reliable information in the past, advised that 


t 


I 1 of Selma, Alabama, was the principal speaker at a 

meeting of the St. Louie Metropolitan Area Citisens Council 
held at the St. Louis Baptist Temple, 4249 Gibson, St. Louis, 
Missouri, at 8:00 p.a., on November 20, 1905} that tbe meet* 
ing was attended by ah estimated 150 persons and that Lewis 
Sol lie, Director of the White Clttsens Councils of America, . 
was slao present. Source stated that Approximately 175 demon* 
strators picketed the meeting, but that there was no serious 
disorder. * 1 . >‘^4 ; ; V r 


On November 20, 1965, Detective 


St. Louie Police Department Intelligence Unit, advised that 
two persons were arrested at the demonstration held at the 
meeting of the St. Louis Metropolitan Area Citizens Council 
meeting at S t, louls Baptist fample on No vember 20, 1965; 
*5»t one was I ... it 6tj_ Louis Cha p te r 

of the W.B.B. DuBoia Club. and the other was j I 

I i an often arrests 


cxvxx right* demonstrator and member of a local civil rights 
group called ACTION, which is a small splinter group of 
individuals that broke off of the St. Louis Chapter of the 
Congress of Racial^Equal!ty<C0BE>. 


attached. 


A characterisation of the V.E.9. DuBols Club Is 


[ 


Rotated 


that 


force their way into the meeting and were arrested for peace 




tried to 


This communication and its contents are loaned to you by the 
VB1, and neither it nor its contents are to be distributed 
outside of the agency to which loaned. ^ ■ sukhbd 

1 " ■ ‘ ;■ y= . 4 \ .. 'RRUimeT 

? .y; ■._>’ &':■'? msexm 

mo ; .•£ 




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disturbance and trespassing; that the demonstration was 
conducted between approximately 0:00 * 0:00 p.w. # And ; 

that there was no other disorder. : ■•% ' . . IJy 



The ”St. iftiis Globe Stemodrat” newspaper issue 
of November 03, 1065 # reported that following the arrest 
of two demonstrators, the St. bools Police Department barred ■ 
the doors to additional persons wanting to attend the meeting} 
that announcement was made in the meeting that no disruption - 
would be tolerated and that following the pledge of allegiance : 
te the flew end J&jb. 6f the Ration al Anthora by th e : : ' 1 

audien ce, 1_1 was introduced by 1 I that r ' v : 

I [ charged that the civil rights movement was inspired by ; •> - 
communists and defended his handling of'civil rights Incidents 6 
in Selma, Alabama! that he alleged that the Selma marchers 4 
•were "beatniks, misfits and garbage** trying to "produce a . c ••> 
coffee colored nation* 1 ; that l b ald he was giving consi* -'v 

deration, to running for Governor of Alabama when Governor 
George Wallace’s term expires. ; 





















































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I" ~ I of the St» Louis Metropolltan Area 

Citizens Council t announced In the 9/19/65 Issue of the■ f 
"St. Louis Post Dispatch" newspaper that this-organization " 
would hol d a meeting in St. kmla on 11/29/65 at which 
_____ 1 would be the speaker. y' 

• A non-pro seen t i ve summary report .on subject *s back¬ 
ground .and organizational activities should be prepared. 



1 - 157-562 <61. METRDPOLITjU? AREA 
CITIZENS CODKCIL) 
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hi coon 



I BIAS AT KIEL 

Ry ROBERT H. COLLINS j 
Of the Post-Dispatch Staff i 

The Rev. W. C, Barlow, presi- j 
*t dent of the St. Louis chapter of 
the white Citizens Council, said 
yesterday that his organization 
was considering legal action to 
determine the constitutionality^ 
of the city's law that prohibits 
segregated meetings of any kind 
in Kiel Auditorium. 

Attorneys in the headquarters 
of the Citizens Council in Jack* 
son, Miss*, and lawyers who 
are members of the St. Louis 
chapter of the council, believe 
that the ordinance ie unconsti¬ 
tutional dn that it prevents free¬ 
dom of assembly, the Rev. Mr. 
Barlow said. 

The Municipal Auditorium 
Commission canceled Wednesday 
a contract that would have per¬ 
mitted the local white Citizens 
Council to hold a segregated 
meeting *in Assembly Hall No, 1 
in KtieL The hall seats about 
600. 

In announcing the meeting, the 
RcVl Mr. Barlow said that no 
Negroes would be admitted. 
Sheriff James G. QartfiLS£ima t 
Ala., a leading segregationist, 
was to have been the principal 
speaker at the meeting. 

1 The (meeting now will be held 
Nov/20 at 7:30 put. in the St. 

: Louis Baptist Temple, 4249 Gib- 
, son avenue, and Sheriff Clark 
will be the principal speaker, 

I the Rev* Mr, Barlow said. Ne- 
■ gross wiU not be admitted, he 
! asserted. 

| “It is my opinion that, except 
for Selma and Montgomery, 
Ala., St. Louis had more par¬ 
ticipants in the Selma-to-Mont- 
gomery march than any other 
city/' the Rev. Mr. Barlow said, 
“Some things that occurred on 
that march which Sheriff Clark 
knows about and is prepared to 
discuss are things which the 
local participants 
ifcl, wuil revealed* 1 here M 


. fhe Rev, Mr* Barlow 
said. “Sis my belief that' th& i 
opinions were made known to ! 
Mayor Cervantes and that pres-! 
sure was put on him to have \ 
our meeting canceled/' 

“We have a rather strange sit¬ 
uation. to say the least, when 
the Commumst element can v 
meet jn Kftei Auditorium, and 
the Auditorium Commission does 
not caned them out but pro¬ 
hibits juse of a hall by decent 
citizens/* the Rev. Mr. Barlow 
continued* 

James Jackson, editor of the 
Communistnewspaper, The 
Worker, spoke at a meeting held 
in Kiel Auditorium in 1964* a 
M T fte Communist party has 
been ordered by the Federal J 
Government to register as a ^ 
branch of a foreign power, and 1 
to this date they have not done ( 
the Rev. Mr. Bartow said* , 
"Yet, they are permitted f to 
[come in and promote tpetr : 
ideology without any 'Hndrancali 
a™ 1 city or state officiafe/yj- 


■ i 

\ 


-v *'; r - 

V / ' V ■*_ 


(Indicate page, name o« 

tSfiTa H ttL , ol>e- 

Deaoorat, St« 
Louis, Missouri 
—St. Louis Post- 
Dispatch, St. 
*j2^Louis, Missouri 
^^The St. Louis 

Argus, St. Louis, 
Missouri ; 


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Buy US. Savings Bonds Regularly on the Payroll Savings Plan 

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FD-350 fRev. 7-I&-G3) 


(Mount Clipping In Space Below) 


Pickets Sing 
As Alabama 

Sheriff Talks 

> 

Two Arrested Here 
For Disturbance 
Before Meeting 


The protest tmwhyp" w^.- 

gefiFrttif^pfeftefcful. Key car¬ 
ried signs, including one say¬ 
ing, "Clark has fhe right ,t 6 . 
speak, not to murder / 1 
Most were young men and 
women, but some members of 
a militant group called ACTIO. 
led by its chairman, Percy 
Green, were present at the dem- 
. on straitens. 

i One demonstrator handed ft 
reporter a sheet of paper which 
gaid the demonstrators had no 
common affiliation "other than 
\ a Mief that the policy expressed 
\ ; by Mr. Clark is contrary to the 
Ideals of America and we are 1 
(opposed to the development of j- 
« l similar problems in St, Louifl .** 
i i‘ 3 The paper said the demon- 

While civil rights pickets owHj| nto ^ acknowledged the right 
side were singing, "We shaib ; ^ the ebuncd to exist and to 9 s- 
Overcome / 1 Sheriff James G /gamble/but *‘we believe tfhe 


n hyflMtetv.^ji disacreem enWw i 
j'Sferiff Clark, filed out during 
*\ speech. 

! About 100. who* stayed until 
^finished, applauded heartily 
the .closer . 


- 

he } 

,al l 


Clark; of Selma, Ala., told m 
audience at the St, Louis Baptist 
Temple, 4249'Gibson ave., Satur 
day night "As long as we con¬ 
tinue to stick together, they shall 
never overcome/* 

The meeting,. which was at¬ 
tended by about 140 persons, 
about the same number as the 
pickets, was sponsored by the 
St. Louis Area Metropolitan Cit¬ 
izens Coimdl. It originally had 
been scheduled for Kiel Audi- 
tort urn, but the. Municipal Audi¬ 
torium Commission denied the 
council tide of the auditorium aft¬ 
er the council president, the Rev, 
W. C, Bartow, said no Negroes 
would be admitted, 

TWO ARRESTED 
Several demonstrators went in 


Jug started and two were arrest¬ 
ed orupeace disturbance charges. 

They are Ronald Landberg, 
area co-ordinator for the W, E, 
B. DuBoia Club, who gave an 
address in the 21 €G block of Rose 
Bud avenue, Hillsdale, and Ivory 
Perry, who has been arrested 
numerous times in connection 
with civil nights demonstrators. 
He ga\V an address in the 5100 
btock of Raymond avenue. 

They will appear in City Court 
No. 1 Monday on the charges, 
fflhey laid down when arrested 
and were carried to a police 
cruiser. 

Permission to use the church 
for the meeting was given by 
the Rev/ Bill Beeny, Baptist 
| wbo is pastor of the 
iere, m “ 


ideals espoused by this organi¬ 
zation are a threat to the Ameri¬ 
can way of life/* 

Detectives from the St. Louis 
Police Department lined the 
street outside tlte demonstration 
lines and barred tihe -doors to the 
building after the arrests, pre¬ 
venting some persons from at¬ 
tending the mueeting. 

The meeting began with a 
prayer by Mr, Beeny, who asked 
a blessing on those "who do not 
agree With us tonight." 

NO DISRUPTION 
Then, an announcement that 
no disruption would be tolerated 
was followed by a pledge of al¬ 
legiance to the Flag and the 
singing of the National Anthem 
kjy the audience 


side the church before the meet- i -Lewis Hollis, director of the 

White Citizens Councils of Amer¬ 
ica, introduced Sheriff .Clark 
'Sheriff Clark charged that the 
civil rights movement was in 
spired by ah international Com¬ 
munist conspiracy, arid defended 
his handling of the Selma, Ala., 

' civil rights incidents 4 . 

. Most of the Selma marchers 
| an d d emonfiIrfttors w ere * *b e at* 

| rlk$; misfits and garbage” try- 
[; ling to "produce: a coffee- 
!] colored nation/* he declared, 

3 ;;Sheirtff Clark said he has "giv- 
eri consideration" fo running for ? 
J governor of Alabama when Gov- j 
f ernor George Wallace's term ex- 
f pi res. 

. -There was no admission charge 
-ga ting. but a^collectfjui 


et sanee tist 
tdmrcft mere 


; fiat was pas sed SeveraTffgroBs. 


(IndJcafe page, name* of 

MW W/‘ MlV'tSlbbe- 
Democrat t St. 
/^Louia, Missouri 
^—St. Louis Post- 
Dispatch, St a 
Louis, Missouri 
—The St. Louis 
Argus s St. Louis „ 
Missouri 


Date: 




Edition: 

Author: 

Editor: 

Title: 


Ctiaract e*s 
or 

Classification: 
Submitting Office 

| | Being Invest!gated 


bS 

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NQVfcH 1365 

IS 









































FO-350 (Rev, 7* 16-63) 




{Mount Clipping In Space Below) 


*MoieI Cancels \ 

: Space for Clark 

A reservation made by Sheriff 
James G. Clark of Selma,. AJa., 
at Holiday Inn South, 36E0 South 
i Lindbergh bl, r Subset Hilts, for 1 
1 the week-end was canceled after 
law enforcement authorities 
warned the motel might he pic* , 
toeted. it was reported Monday, r 
Sheriff Clark, due here to speak 
at a meeting of the St, Lotus 
chapter of the White Citizens , 
Council, was notified by telegram L 
of She'Cancellation 1 two days be- \ 
fore his arrival, a spokesman for' 
the management sa>id. 

Reports that the motel man¬ 
ager said his business might be 
adversely affected by Sheriff 
'Clark's presence because he ,had ; 
Negro employes were unfounded, 
the spokesman said, f 
The Rev. W.\C. Barlow, coun¬ 
cil president! had asserted the 
manager made ohait statement to’j { 

t-"_ T /.,. *^ji * 1 1 M 


p- -—--■*—-* ---- 

(Indicate page, name oi 

new, gc tb\ft4' a folobe~ 


. Democrat, St. 

&?/} Louts, Missouri 
\ —St. Louis Post- 
Dispatch, St. 
Louis, Missouri 
1—The St. Louis 

Argus, St. Louis, 
Missouri 



Datej /A<%3- &S~ 

Edition: 

Author; 

Editor; 

Title; 


Character; 

or 

Classification: 
Submitting Office' 


b6 

b 7 C 


St. Louis 

I I Be inq Investigated 


<n'r?s. - 


w 


llUKbllU. .yJlMil . 


MOV k ;i 1965 






FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 


1/25/66 


JACKSON 


1 / 10 - 20/66 


ST. LOUIS 


ST. LOUIS METROPOLITAN AREA 
CITIZENS’ COUNCIL 


CHARACTER Of CASE 


RM - ORGANIZATION 


NON-PROSECUTIVE SUMMARY REPORT 


REFERENCE: St. Louis airtel to the Bureau, dated 11/17/65 


STATUS 


LEAD 


THE ST. LOUIS DIVISION 


AT ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 


Will follow and report activities of captioned 
organization in three months. 


INFORMANTS 


Bureau (RM) 

ONI, Chicago (RM) 

AC of S, G-2, Chicago (RM) 
Region VI, 113th INTC Group, 
St. Louis (RM) 

12D, OSI, CAFB, Ill. (RM) 
Secret Service,St.Louis (RM) 
Jackson (RM) 

Kansas City (Info.) (RM) 


SEARCHED^ 
SERIALIZED 
INDEXED^ 
FILED > 











) 

1 



SL 157-582 


IDENTITY LOCATION 



ADMINISTRATIVE: 

A copy of this report is being directed to the Kansas 
City Division for information concerning the organization and 
activity in St, Louis of the St, Louis Metropolitan Area Citizens* 
Council, 


- B* - 


COVER PAGE 




hJ * 


n».t 04 {He»,M-M) 


Copy to: 

5sport ofi 

Dote: 

FleW O files Ms No 

Tiflfli 


1 

1 

1 

2 

1 


UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 
FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 


ONI, Chicago <RM) 

AC of S, G-2, Chicago (RM) 

Region VI, 113th INTC Group, St. Louis (RM) 

12D, OSI, Chanute Air Force Base, Illinois (RH) 
Secret Service, St. Louis (RM) 


b> ' 


3A[ 


] 


January 25, 1966 

SL 157-582 

ST. LOUIS METROPOLITAN AREA 
CITIZENS' COUNCIL 


Office: 


Bureau File No.: 


ST. LOUIS 


Om TO tiff: 


Synoptltt 


RACIAL MATTERS (ORGANIZATION) 


The St. Louis Metropolitan Area Citizens' Coun 
sponsored organizational meetings in 1964^65. 


bb 

b 



Pr 


~ ~ 1 SlMACC is autonomous but affiliated with 

Citizens' Councils of America, Plaza Building, Jackson, Miss. 
, SLMACC headquarters mail received at Post Office Box 9683, 
Kirkwood, Mo., 63122. Organizational action program calls 
for maintenance of racial integrity, defense of States* 
Rights, and repeal of the Civil Rights Act. SLMACC circu¬ 
lated petition opposing repeal of Missouri law prohibiting 
intermarriage of Negroes and whites, and its speaker, 

I [ appeared before legislature hearings at 

State Capitol, Jefferson City, Mo., in opposition. Official 
publication is the "St. Louis Metropolitan Citizen" with 
address of Post Office Box 9683, Kirkwood, Mo. 


- P* - 


DETAILS: AT ST. LOUIS. MISSOURI 


V- 


doercnrart oontmlzu neither hnotsmhdttioBS aus oraeloslOfts of the FBI. Eft te the property of tk FBI i 

Its contents are not to bo distributed outside your sooney. 
















SL 157-582 


1 • ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE 



I advised that the headquarters 

of the St, Louis Metropolitan Area citizens' Council (SSLMACC), is 
Post Office fks* 9683, Kirkwood, Missouri! that the SLMACC does 

not have a residence headquarters as meetings when called are held 
in rented locations. 


XU ORIGIN AND FORMATION INFORMATION 

- — .> — • ' 1 [ *““ ■ *—»*— *t- '*** 



On \ (furnished a copy of a form 

addressed" 'bear Patriot" and signed. ''Organization Committee., 
St. Louis Metropoli tan Area Citizens* Council, John H. Sutherland 
Temporary Chairman;| 1 which were 

mailed to residents or the st. Louis metropolitan area. They bore 
the letterhead f, 8t.. Louis Metropolitan Area Citizens 1 Council 
Organization Committee, St. Louis, Missouri," The letter announced 
that a group of local citizens had been quietly meeting together 
to explore what had happened to the personal liberties previously 
taken f .or granted and all agreed that "we are deep in the throes 
of minority rule"; that forgotten men got that way toy failing to 
hteed the admonition of the Great Seal of Missouri, "United we 
stand, divided we fsll. 1 ’ The letter stated that the best way to 
regain majority rule was to haws one strong locally autonomous organization 
built along non-partisan lines and geared to make the local and 
national politicians listen; that’ this was the plan of the Citizens * 
Counci Is of America, and that it was proving its effectiveness in 
ct Humanities across the country. The letter announced that an 
organizational meeting would be held on October 10, 1964, in the 
hall of the Electrical Workers, Local *71, 5850 Elisabeth Avenue, 

St Leu la. Misso uri, at 8:00 PM. at which tim e guest speakers would 

toe [_ | for the Citizens' 

■Councils of Maryland', Washington. 157 C,, and V is* g i n i a; and LOU IS W, 
HOLLIS, Executive Director, Citizens’ Councils of America. The 
letter had attached to it a tear-off portion which was to be mailed 
to JOHN B. SUTHERLAND, Graveis Station, Post Office Box C, St. Louis, 
Missouri, on which the recipient was to indicate whether or not he 


b?. 

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2 - 



SL 157-582 


would be present and the names of any friends that would accompany 
the recipient. 


On October 13, 1964 
a meeting on October 10, 1964, 

Local #1, St. Louis, Missouri, 

Council in St. Louis, Missouri, 

.125 persons and wan nresided over 
Patent Attorney who talked briefly about 


advised that the SLMACC held 
at the hal1 of the Electrical Workers, 
to endeavor to organise a Citizens' 
which was attended by approximately 
by JOHN H. SUTHERLAND , a St, Louis 
the Negro problem in the 


United States, and on several occasions stated that there was a 
possibility in the near future of having Governor GEORG1LX—ELALLACE 
of A l &h .-am a. .fad aear in St, Louis; that he than introduced 

pho spoke upon desegregation of schools, 
supreme Court 
other speaker 



f ft rm su h a i d :i Q <5 

was 


and attacked 


m 7 "tm 

Corps. 

Course firs 
Itf Boats, ,L 

org.araiKing efforts of the SLMACC. Informant stated that 
applications were distributed, and persons present were 
return them with $2 monthly dues. 


r. s 

The _ _ 

of America, send’ author of the book, "The Secret 
whose purpose for attending the meeting we s to 


Tailings 
lil£ Peace 

Citizens 1 
for the 




War 
direct 
membership 
.urged to 


,bC 


b 

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Tine May I, 1965, issue of the "St. Louis Post-Dispatch" 
newspaper reported that the SLMACC had sponsored an organizing 
meeting held on April 30; 1965. at the American Legion Hall, Post 400, 
Highway 141 and Oravois Road, Fenton. Missouri, at which LESTER MADDOX, 
Atlanta, Georgia, segregationist who owned the PAekrick Restaurant in 
Atlanta, Georgia, was the principal speaker. 


•> 3 ® 






















The September 19, 1985, issued of th e "St. Louis Post- 
Dispatc h" newspaper reported an interview with l 

1 conducted on September 18, 1965, which identified I 

I JOHN H. SUTHERLAND 

who had res igned because of his busi ness commitments, 
stated that | | planned to endeavor to form 

chapters in the larger cities in Missouri; that the SLMACC was 
concerned over the trend toward anarchy in the United States 
under the leadership of MARTIN LUTHER KING, head of the Southern 

stated 


leadership of MARTIN LUTHER KING, 

Christian Leadership Conference organization who_ 

was under the guise of a Christian minister largely responsible 
for the law breaking, looting and ravishing now prevalent in the 
United States; that KING and President LYNDON B, .JOHNSON were 
equally responsible for the Los Angeles, California, riots. 

I said the Civil Rights agitation was largely Communist 
inspired and praised the police in all areas for the restraint 
they have shown in the face of unbelievable provocation by Negro 
mobs who cursed, spit upon and otherwise taunted officers of the 
law, He stated that KING had proclaimed that his subjects would 
not obey any laws they considered pnjust; that they would decide 
for themselves what, was good and what was bad; that President . 
JOHNSON is equally responsible for not telling KING differently 
and then telling the Ame rican people that the laws of the country 
will be obeyed, ||stated that the two principal objectives 
of the SLMACC are States' Rights and Racial Integrity; that the 
Bible teaches racial separation but the United States courts now 
made up of politically appointed left wingers have Ignored the 
fact that they have violated the religious freedom of millions 
of Americans by forcing them into integrated situations. 


On November 20, 1965,|___| advised that the SLMACC 

sponsored a meeting held at the St, Louis baptist Temple—4.2.4H. 

Gibson, St. Lou is, Missouri, on November 20, 1965; that] _ 

lof Selma, Alabama, was the principal speaker an< 








SJL 157-582 


that the meeting was attended by approximately 150 persons; that 
LOUIS KQLLIS, Director of the Citizens' Councils of America, 

was also present; that approximatel y 175 d emonstrators picketed 
the meeting, Informant stated that I I charged that the Civil 

Rights movement was inspired by Communists and defended his 1 

handling of the Civil Rights movements in Selma, Alabama, br 

■ b7c 

in, FIVE--P OI NT ACTION PROCRAM 0? SLHACC b7 ,. 

On | l adv ised that the SLMACC 

distributed a leaflet setting out the following five-point action 
program; 


”1. Prevent Race-Mixing, Racial * integrity is essential 
to civilisation and liberty. , The fate of the white 
maw (and woman) in the Congo and other new African 
nations is a stern warning: 


” 2 . 



Avoid Violence, Experience has proved that where 
integration occurs, violence becomes inevitable. 
Peaceful operation of segregated schools in the 
South proves that social separation of the races 
is best for all concerned. 

Main tail, and Restore Legal Segregation. As growing 
disorder in Northern cities shows, if segregation 
breaks down, the social structure breaks down. 

The Communists hope to achieve disintegration 
through integration in America! 


”4. Defend States' Rights. The states are the source 

of all governmental power, local and Federal. Under 
the Tenth Amendment, the states have the reserved 
power to decide questions of segregation, Federal 
usurpation of any such power is a violation of the 
Constitution, 


"5. Correct the Court and the Congress. Both the Supreme 
v Court’s 'Black Monday' decision and the Congressional 

'Civil Rights' Act are obviously un-Constitutional, 


5 - 











SL 157-582 




"based on false 'science* in mockery of the law, 

Xf they stand, social segregation and laws against 
intermarriage aredoomed. Such a prospect is 
intolerable! The 'Black Monday' decision must 
be reversed, the 'Civil Rights* Act repealed! " 

The above leaflet also bore a caption, "What is the 
Citizens’ Council doing?", and listed the following: 

"XT IS.,. 

"Preserving Racial Segregation, and maintaining the 
the rights of states, local communities and individual 
citizens to govern themselves, free from Federal tyranny 
am" coercion, 

"Leading the Resistance Movement against the race- 
mixers, and keeping advocates of racial strife out of many 
communities, 

) "Protecting Our Sacred Heritage of Freedom from those 

who would submit free Americans to thought control, and who 
constantly utilize the national communications media as 
propaganda outlets in their frenzied attempts to force 
Americans into a totalitarian pattern of regimentation 
and conformity. 

"Bringing Together groups of patriotic men and women 
dedicated to the principles of individual freedom of choice 
and racial purity. 

"Organizing Local Citizens' Councils on a grassroots 
basis, with recognized community leadership for each 
autonomous group, 

"Providing Speakers for Council meetings, civic and 
patriotic groups, legislative and executive bodies, schools, 
colleges and conventions. 

"Preserving Our Social and Economic Order by acting 
quietly and without fanfare, effectively and responsibly, 
to prevent racial strife. 


6 











SL 157-582 


"CITIZENS* COUNCIL, Plaza Building, Jackson, Mississippi, or 
"• "Cravois Station, P. 0. Box C, St, Louis, Missouri 63116," 


IV, STATED REASONS FOR ORGANIZATION OF SLM ACC 

~ T '”" " ’ b 

advised that the 

SLMACC distributed a leaflet at organizational meetings captioned, 

"Why Must fit. Louis Metropolitan Area Organise?", prepared by 
the Organization Committee, SLMACC, St, Louis, Missouri, which 
set out the following questions and answers which it indicated 
was for white residents of St, Louis who sincerely believe that 
States* Rights and racial segregation must be preserved for the 
best and good order of our country and for our children's futures. 

"Q - What is the present racial situation in St. Louis? 

"A - For the past several years, local white 'moderates* 
have attempted to appease the organized colored agitation 
groups — and with tragic results! Their well-intentioned 
efforts have served only to whet the agitators’ insatiable 
appetites for power. Like Hitler and Khrushchev, the 
collectivists have announced their program. They will 
settle for nothing less than total integration of every 
residential area, every social gathering, and every privately- 
owned business enterprise! The white majority must act before 
state coercion prevents us from doing so! 

"Q - What can be accomplished by organizing a St. Louis 
, Metropolitan Area Citizens* Council? Will it make my efforts 
more effective in preserving individual freedom and the constitu¬ 
tional right to segregation? 

"A — A strong Citizens' Council in St. Louis, with thousands 
of members and capable leadership, can restore harmony and 
stability to race relations in our community! IVe must build 
a full-time organization in St, Louis, capable of maintaining 
an office and being always alert to efforts to integrate our 
community. 

4 - 

"Q - Why organize a Citizens' Council? Aren't there 
already too many organizations in St. Louis, 



- 8 - 



SL 157-582 


"A - Effectiveness of the Citizens' Council movement 
is shown toy results throughout the nation. Communities 
with strong Citizens’ Councils have maintained freedom of 
choice in racial matters, while unorganised cities have 
surrendered supinely. During the past 10 years, the Citizens' 
Councils have demonstrated that organization is the key to 
victory! Our St. Louis Metropolitan Area Citizens' Council 
will enable every dedicated white resident of this area to 
unite effectively in a program for victory! 

-*q » Who will run the St. Louis Metropolitan Area 
Citizens' Council and set its policies? 

f '& - YOU will! Each local Council i- including ours 
in St. Louis .—* is completely autonomous. You and other 
members select the officers and directors who plan our 
program and determine our policies. This provides us with 
sound, responsible local leadership. in addition, through 
our affiliation with the Citizens' Councils of America, we 
have the valuable opportunity to consult with leaders through¬ 
out the country, and with other local Citizens' Councils 
whose problems are similar to ours. 

”Q -* Can the Citizens’ Council work with businessmen to 
prevent forced integration and the deprivation of constitutional 
guarantees? 

"A Yes! Statistics show that integration is toad for 
business', By working to uphold property rights and freedom 
of choice, your Citizens' Council can make an important con¬ 
tribution to the continued prosperity of this area. We can 
help locaj businessmen resist assaults by Negro agitators. 

We can demand — and obtain ■-*■ vigorous enforcement of existing 
laws, and safeguard the right of each business to operate as its 
owners see fit, in keeping with our American traditions. 

"Q - Wasn't our battle lost with passage of the so-called 
Civil Rights Bill? 

"A - No, indeed! The 'civil wrongs' bill will be just as 
unenforceable as prohibition, However, we must now become 
better organized, On July 3, 1984, —■ the day it was signed 


9 




SL 157-582 


"into law — the Citizens' Councils of America began a 
nationwide campaign aimed at repealing the so-called 
'Civil Rights' act. They pledged to continue and 
intensify this effort, and to enlist the support of 
white Americans in every section of our nation who 
oppose this vicious and tyrannical legislation. Every 
citi&en is perfectly within his legal rights in working 
to repeal the 'Civil Rights' act. 

M Q - Is membership in the Citizens' Council open 
only to men? 

"A - No! Women are the guardians of our homes. 

They train our children. It is important for them to be 
members! We need the support of tne ladies -- particularly 
the mothers. 

"Q - As a member, what will l be asked to do? 

"A - You will have an opportunity to work with a 
committee of the Council, according to your own profession 
or field of interest. Special projects such as membership 
drives, addressing mail or telephoning members will require 
volunteer workers. The few hours you devote to the Council 
will be repaid in full by the inner satisfaction of knowing 
that you are doing something positive for your children and 
for your community’s future! 

"Q How much will it cost me? 

■'A - A local Citizens' Council has minimum monthly dues 
of $2 per member. This includes a subscription to the official 
monthly magazine, THE CITIZEN, support of the Citizens' Council 
Forumand the state and national associations. 

"Q - How may I. join the Citizens' Council? 

"A “ You may join at the organization meeting of the 
St. Louis Metropolitan Area Citizens' Council to be held 
at 8:0(J-p,m. on Saturday, October 10, in the Slali of Electrical 
Workers, Local #1, 5S50 Elizabeth Avenue in St. Louis. Plan 
to attend --- and bring your friends who feel as you do! If 


10 










SL 


157-582 


"you can’t come, well be happy to ^end you a membership 
application. But be at the meeting if you possibly can! 
Please complete the reply form on the back of this page and 
mail it today!” 


V. QUESTIONNAIRE FOR NEW MEMBERS 


On 


furnished the following 


questionnaire used by the SlmACC for prospective new members; 
Appropriate ”Yes” or ”No” boxes were to be checked. 


t>? 

1)73 


”1. Are you positively dedicated, as a matter of 
personal choice, to the principle of the social separation 
of the races? 


”2. Do you believe that forced integration and racial 
interbreeding threaten the integrity of both races, and 
endanger the very foundation of our Western civilization? 

”3. Do you believe that either Communist influences or 
economic pressure groups are behind the campaign to force 
the white people of this country to amalgamate with the 
negro race? 

”4. Do you believe that left-wing agitation groups are 
inciting racial tension and racial violence in the nation 
because they want Federal intervention by armed troops, thus 
establishing a police state under martial law? 

”5. Do you believe in the rights of the Sovereign States 
to handle their own internal affairs? 


"6. Do you believe in the principle of local self- 
government, and in the strengthening of local and state 
governments to protect citizens from Federal meddling? 

"7. Do you realize that indifference, apathy, and the 
inclination of some to accept collectivism as ’inevitable’ 

... are our greatest enemies? 


11 



SL 157-582 


"8. Are you ready and willing to DO SOMETHING positive 
about this very serious and present problem? 

b73 

"Will you join the Citizens* Council?" 


VI. MEMBERSHIP INFORMATION'..; 


. ,b'i ra 


On January 19 1 1965,1 [advised that upon filing a 
membership application with SLMACC and payment of $2, acknowledgment 
of the receipt of the application and $2 is made from Rooms 315-325, 
Plaza Building, Jackson, Mississippi, by form letter of the Citizens' 
Councils of America, LOUIS W, HOLLIS, Executive Director which is 
addressed, "Dear Council Member: 

"According to our records, you are in good standing 
with your local Council. Your new membership card for 
the coming year is enclosed herewith," 

advised that the SLMACC uses the following mimeo¬ 
graphed fofm 1ft t'Cer in recontacting individuals who discontinue 
paying monthly dues: 

"Dear Friend of the Citizens' Council, 


"For some time now you have been enjoying the privileges of 
Citizens' Council membership, but our records indicate your 
monthly dues to be in arrears. Up to now we have been willing 
to go along on this basis because it is so important that you 
keep receiving Citizens' Council publications and information. 


"Now, our national headquarters in Jackson is putting pressure 
on us to pay our bills to them for servicing our memberships. 
This involves quite a bit of money, and frankly is the reason 
for the emergency nature of this letter. 

"We know you are interested in seeing the work of the Citizens* 
Council go forward. Our part in the defeat of the inter¬ 
marriage bill was only a start. But, to carry on every member 
must shoulder a part of this responsibility. In this struggle 
the funds will come from neither the big tax free foundations 
nor from government handouts...if they are to be available at 


12 




SL 157-582 


. ; 



"all they must conje from the people who have formed the 
backbone of America since the night they threw tea into 
Boston Harbor. 


•* . . < 

, , -< v. 








"You are still carried on the rolls as a member...you are 
needed there in a place of service; however, this is a two 
way street. We realize the heavy obligations on everyone 
today and rn order for to to continue as a member, receive 
the magazine and newsletter and have voting privileges, we 
hax'e permission to permit those behind in their dues to 
start repaying with the current month. This is a limited 
offer, so please let us know right away...for sad to say 
those who do not respond will have to be dropped, 


"By responding you will remain a vital part of this great 
movement.don't sever this link with fellow believers... 
the need was never greater. 


"Great campaigns are being planned for the next few months... 
be a part of them. States' rights and racial integrity are 
not just slogans... they are the watchwords for the salvation, 
of western civilization. 


"Cordially, 


"YOUR CITIZENS' COUNCIL" 


VII. OFFICER S 



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Vr11, OFFICIAL PUBLICATION OF TftE SLMACC 

The official publication of the SLMACC is the "St. Louis 
Metropolitan Citizen," Post Office Box 9683, Kirkwood, Missouri. 


13 



SL 157-582 




The masthead of this publications states that it is, M A monthly 
journal of fact and opini on published by the St. Loui s Metropolitan 
Area Citi zens* Council.” | is identified as l I 

1 The publication carries a tear-off portion for subscribers 
which contains two boxes to be checked reading as follows: 


”1. I enclose $1 for a one year subscription to the 
St, Louis Metropolitan Citizen,' 


to advance the cause 


issue #1, dated April, 1965, of the ”St, Louis Metropolitan 
reported the following: 


Citizen 


THE CITIZENS' COUNCIL 
"A HISTORY 


”Tho first Citizens' Council was formed by fourteen civic 
leaders at Indianola, Mississippi, July 11, 1954. They 
counseled together in the wake of the U.S. Supreme Court's 
'Black Monday' decision, For the first time in American 
history racial segregation had been outlawed by judicial 
decree. The way of life regulating the daily activities 
of tens of millions of Americans, white and black, lay at 
the mercy of power hungry Negro racists, 


"These early organizers realized that the fundamental issue 
was a struggle for power. It could be met only by bringing 
together a winning combination of responsible and able leaders 
a mass membership, and the resources with which to operate. 


"Word of the Citizens' Council spread. Neighboring towns and 
counties began to organize. Three months later twenty counties 
formed the Association of Citizens' Councils of Mississippi. 

\ "The movement expanded rapidly outside its home state. Then 
two years later, on April 7, 1956, the Citizens' Councils of 
America was formed in New Orleans. 


"Today the Citizens* Councils, under responsible civic leader¬ 
ship at local, state and national levels have developed into 


i4 





SL 157-532 


b3 

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b7D 


"a movement wording for social separation pf the races 
as the only proven solution to our most serious domestic 
problem," 

On May 3, 1965, | advised that on April 21, 1965, 

the SLMACC distributed a per re xpn addressed to "Members of the 
Missouri Legislature" which stated that the undersigned wished 
to go on record as being opposed to the repeal of the'Missouri 
Anti-Miscegenation Law", that "we feel that the intermarriage 
between, the races will create many more problems than it would 
ever solve" and urged defeat of House Bill #129 and H.B, #132, 

The 'St, Louis Metropolitan Citizen," off icial publication 
of the SLMACC, in its Issue #4, dated duly, 1965, reported that 
the atao ve ment ion. ad H.B. 129 and 132 had gone down to defeat and 
thanked I I for his "brilliant appearance" before the 

committee, the news media on behalf of "our cause." 


Poe 


IX. inSNTiyiCATION OF POST OFFICE BOX 

- » t » ■ ' ' - - ' ~ - - ' ' ■ f ' 1 1 — -T“— 

Post Office Box C, Gravois Station, was transferred to 
9fiS3. on Mav 11_IRfiii_The holder of this box_ 







UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 


FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 

St. Louis, Missouri 


January25, 1966 


ST. LOUIS METROPOLITAN AREA 
CITIZENS' COUNCIL 


RACIAL MATTERS (ORGANIZATION) 


Character 


Report of SA|_ 

dated January 25, 196 
St. Louis 


All sources (except any listed beloe) whose identities 
are concealed in referenced communication have furnished reliable 
information in the past. 


This document contains neither recommendations nor conclusions 
of the FBI. It is the property of the FBI and is loaned to your 
agency; it. and its contents are not to be distributed outside 
your agency, • , ■ . 


SAC , KASHAS CITY 

- ' ,* f * 

SAC, St* LOUIS <157-582) 


1/25/66 


ST, LOVtS METROPOLITAN AREA CITIZENS COUNCIL 
RM (ORGANIZATION) 


»*•« - 


The December, 2665, Issue of the St. Louis Metro¬ 
politan Citizen, official publication of the above captioned 
organisation, contains a not e that the Coluabia. Mi ssouri. 

Council was heard from; that I I sent a copy 

of a flyer that his group was circulating which is quoted as 
follower ' • • 

"OCR TAX DOLLARS ARE BEING USED TO FINANCE 'HATE WHITES* PROJECT? 

■ , . ■ ‘ . • ■: ? ; ■ rat 

"Permit me to quote from an Associated Press Dispatch dated ( 
November SO, 1965, ’Each night in a makeshift Harlem theater 
a group of young Negroes give went to their hatred of white 
people. They act out dreams of a day then tile Negro will 
stand apart from the white world, and Harlem will be an 
independent nation. I lie the b itterly anti-white 

I the seven-month-old 

Rack Arte Repertory Theater-School, PARTLY SUPP O R T S ) BY 
FEDERAL FUNDS. (Capitals added.) ’The force we want*, he ' 
once wrote, 'Is of 20 million spooks (Negroes) storming America 
with furious cries and unstoppable weapons. We want actual 
explosions and actual brutality.*...’All of his productions, 
which ’...seethe with rage against ’Whitey** were recently 
stepped op after $40,000 in federal anti-poverty funds were 
node available. Fellow patriots, is THIS hew you want your 
hard-earned tax dollars spent? If not, then immediately write 
or wire your congressmen and senators. Have your friends do 
the same. Then, when election time comes, make sore that you 
AND your friends get out and vote ami vote BICKT! T 


ttas City should identify i land determine 

if a Citizens Council is being instituted in Columbia, Ho. 


2 - Kansas City 
1- St. Louis 
RTH/rc 
<3> 





■ SO-tLtf.'Q 

iKcaai 


.*• FILED 


























QtHOHAi HMM HQ. 10 

MAT ItH lOmOH 

OIA tf H* MlCMI lGt-11,* 


• 4 

UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 

Memorandum 


to : 

SAC, ST. LOUIS (157-582) 

date: 

2/16/66 


FROM : 

SA 




subject: 

SL METROPOLITAN AREA 





CITIZENS COUNCIL wc 

RM (ORGANIZATION) 


On 2/11/66, Det.|_[intelligence 

Unit, St. Louis Police Department, furnished a mimeographed 
form letter regarding a members delinquency in his dues payments 
requesting that the member reinstate his dues payments and the 
#1 issue of the SL Metropolitan Citizen, dated April, 1965, 




TO 



FROM 


OPTICAL rOQM.NO> K 
HOT^ON 

d-mi Gra>-nG^ r ‘gu. r> 

united 'states government 

Memorandum 


SAC, St. Louis (157-582) 


Director, FBI (105-34237) 


subject: 



ST. LOUIS METROPOLITAN AREA 

CITIZENS COUNCIL 

RACIAL MATTER - (ORGANIZATION) 


St. Louis. 


Rerep of SA 


date: 2/2,1/66 


/ !% 

dated 1/25/66 at 


l i 
b 


You are reminded of the instructions set forth in 
Bureau letter to SAC, Atlanta, apd various other offices 
(copies to St. Louis) dated June 13, 195B, captioned "Citizens' 
Councils; Internal Security - X," That letter instructed 
offices receiving copies of the letter to discontinue all 
efforts to develop informant'coverage in citizens 1 councils. 

You were instructed that the discontinuance of the program in 
no way altered the Bureau's responsibility of keeping interested 
Government agencies and officials advised of actual or contem¬ 
plated acts of violence in connection with the segregation issue; 
plans for acts violative of laws within the Bureau's jurisdiction, 
particularly those relating to civil rights; and the activities 
of individuals responsible for such acts. 

The Bureau letter pointed out that you have a 
continuing responsibility to insure that the Bureau is apprised 
of all such information, and you are instructed to secure the 
information only through established sources, office contacts 
and close scrutiny of the public press. 

v' To date, the information developed concerning subject 
organization does not indicate this organization qualifies for 
investigation under the criteria of Section 122 of the Manual of 
Instructions, and in the absence of such information, no 
investigation should be conducted of this group. 

* 

The information contained in referenced report appears 
to be from established sources and public source material. 

Insure that no investigation is conducted which is contrary to 
the instructions set forth above concerning cit^zfens* councils, 

C c 


SEARCHED....INDEXED 

SERIALIZED.^ 

FEB 2 CT1966 

-'tins 





Buy US. Savings Bonds Regularly on the Payroll Savings Plan 


bG 

b7C 
























SAC, KANSAS CITY 


VI2/66 


SAC* ST. LOUIS (157-582) (HOC) 


ST, LOUIS METROPOLITAN AREA 
CITIZENS COUNCIL 
RM * ORGANIZATION 


Re Kansas City letter to St. Louis, 3/31/66. . ; . 

For the information of Kansas City the Bureau 
by letter, 2/21/66, in the above captioned matter referred 
to Bureau letter to Atlanta, 6/13/58, captioned "Citizens 1 
Councils } Internal Security - X,V That letter Instructed 
offices receiving -copies to discontinue all efforts to . 
develop Informant coverage in citizens' councils; that the 
discontinuance of the program in no way altered the Bureau's 
responsibility of keeping interested Government agencies 
and offices advised of actual or contemplated acts of violence 
In connection ivlth the segregation Issue’; plans fOr acts 
violative in connection of laws within the Bureau's Jurisdic¬ 
tion particularly those relating to civil rights and the ' y- 
activities of Individuals responsible for such acts. '■ * 


The letter pointed, out that 4^1 offices have a ,i 
continuing responsibility to insure that the Bureau is 
apprised of all such information and offices are. to secure 
the information only to establish sources, office contacts 
and close scrutiny of the public press. . v' . 

■ • * * ■ ■ ■ > , .. * ■ ■■ ' - ■ " 1' j\'~ 

• Bureau advised that to date information developed 
concerning subject organization does not indicate that it 
qualifies for Investigation under the criteria of Section 
122 of the Manual of Instructions, and in the absence of : 
such information, no investigation Should be conducted of 
this group. ... .-.-vv ■ - -- ", .• 


2 - Kansas City 
1 - Jackson 
1)- st, Louis 
KTH:m4b . 


OPTIONAL FOAM W. Ifl 

mat iitt eon eon 

09APPMr{41 CTr) lOl-lli* 


UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 

Memorandum 


SAC, ST, LOUIS (157-NEW)(DEAD) 


date: 7-30-69 


from : SA 


subject: ST, LOUIS METROBOLtfAN AREA CITIZENS COUNCIL 

RACIAL MATTERS 


On 7-29-69 Lt, |_| Intelligence Unit, 

SLPD, made available the attached sheets which were being 
distributed by captioned organization in south St. Louis. 

| [ stated the group made an appearance at 

St. Pius V Catholic Church, corner of S, Grand and Utah, 

SLMO, on 7-27-69 and urged support of their "white Manifesto" 
a copy of which is attached. The groups consisted mostly 
of white fema les, dressed in white blouses, re d skirts, a nd 
a blue sash, [ ~|and f 


the zrouo at^he church. Another : 

individual,| 

1 

1 1 

was also a 

member of 


tne group. 

'He stated that most of the group appear to be the 
former supporters of GEORGE WALLACE for President, which 
in St. Louis, called itslef the American Party, 



SEARCHED. 


SERI All El 


FBI — SAINT LOUIS 


Buy U.S. Savings Bonds Regularly on the Payroll Savings Plan 









b ft 

4 

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Dear Fellow Americans,: 

We ore happy to present to you an opportunity to participate in the fastest 
growing political organisation ever established. 

J*ood Americans just like yourself are helping us to turn the tide, if your 
desires are thesameaas the majority of the people in this Country, then we 
need your help. 

We believe our police officers must be assured they .will be protected and 
defended by their superiors;/a gainst any false charged of police brutality 
\ while carrying out their lawful duties, they must be allowed to defend them¬ 
selves, also be allowed to protect the innocent victim instead of being 
Iforced to protect the koolcs, creeps, hippies and yippies. It is time to wake 
up and stop catering to these misfits which is nothing,'more than a sociali’s- 
Itic and communistic movement destroying the very foundation of our American 
heritage. 

We resent the millions of tax dollars being spent on our' schools which ^ *e 
virtually being destroyed by violent mobs of hoodlums' who aren’t intereu ed 
in an education. 



- The immoral sex programs novj being taught in some of our schools must be 
stopped. Free love has been tried in other countries only to Earing them 
shame, physical illness plus numerous mental disorders/' We believe free and 
open prayer to be for more valuable. 

- Under no circumstances should.the freedoms guaranteed to us by the bill of 
rights as se-t down by our forefathers be infringed. vAnyone speaking or teach¬ 
ing in public places advocating the death of our free America should be punished 
and treated as a traitor. 


- We will work against all forms of free bus service for the purpose of integra¬ 
tion, which is wasting our tax dollars. We will work against forced open 
housing laws also. Forced integration is not the answer. This has only 
caused hate, turmoil, rioting, looting, vandalism, immorality, violence, and 
destruction to our schools and the burning of our cities. Equal rights can 
ohly be accomplished by assuming equal responsibilities and obligations. 

- The ever increasing tax burden caused by corrupt government, wastful spending 
plus gratuitous handouts abroad and a t home must be stopped. 

- we will press for job opportunities and decent housing for all who are willing 
to work,and earn self respect as decent law abiding citizens. Those by reason 
of age, disability or otherwise must be cared Tor through social service. 

- These things can and must be accomplished if America is to survive as the 
great and respected nation that we have always believed it to be. 

- it’s them or us, the choice is yours. 









mm® 


Kirkwood, MO 


a citizen of the United. States of America.' demand-: 
nd that of ray follow citizens shall not lac uiEcur-bod 
inority, or major.tty greupa, or groups of-v/lld 


There for: 


he'' country ' 

■od, raped or 


dtvy or 
1 robbed 


id my f follow citizoufi 1 
other criminal .acta. 

.nd .shall he 1 repaid 'by ’ 
ord labor .iu ■ fo.deral and 

.w.jEr ' • 1 1 i. '£■■ ■■ • . - f A*V/r 


the a I shall band together wi th.. 
and elect publie of£icals-who will 


void of. strong leaders that -'msaa v 'V 
then my fellow 'citi e onsand;-I ;■ 
,'c > will .'restore psjaco. Ahdf^j 


My colonial forefathers carried fireorms to thoir places of worship, 
I pray that; I may uot . bo .forc 0 d. 1 tO; do so. 


A concerned citizen 


member of 


; . V; 1 ■ ■; i.';* •"V.-VjiOfcsgTfit 

tj a . is ci.en'z 1 % h*- ; b 2 


A CITIZENS MAHXFjSSTO 


God &avo m the right to worship ;Lh peace. The first an:ojadmeuu 
of the constitution of the United States of America guarantee a that 

right. Thus for the supreme court has not denied this right to 

■ • * . v , ■ 

■ ,+ n 1 “ "., ■',# ; j *1 : 


that my worship and that of ray 
by invasions of minority, or n 
auimals, uttering ridiculous O' 
my government if those demands 


I demand that it be made safe for me and : 
to walk the streets of any city' or fc.am7.ot in 
night, without being in danger of being raurd 

I . . 1 * J-V;-'/- ,f- ,V . ; *■ if 

I demand that reparations bo paid to me a: 
.for the costs of rioting, looting# arson and 
costs amount to JO billion dollars per year i 
perpetrators of these crimes with years of U 
state prisons. ''XXtr''' 


If these "demands are net .met 
millions of my fallow Amerxcaus 
accede to my demands. 


Should the United States be so d 
of this character can not bo found, 
will form law enforcement groups th 
tranquillity to our' land, v...., 


ds are not act. :. * ■ ■ 

safe for mo and mv fellow f;‘l fcly.rvne* jhk* f; 


' , • : St. Louie Metropolitan Area ; • 

".. CitizcuG Council. •"■.p . 

I urge each church member to go to their priest or pastor. and demand, 
that their church money will not go to any such'-.'ridiculouo:-'militant^ ■' 

ffroup such, as th© action aot>. ;*.> p . V' : ■. ■ ‘ v ViV-.Vv. ; ‘ '*•« ; * 

♦ »■; *.% r V- :r .• • - ^ a :■••. ■■ /■ 

7: , -.'''AA;:.' : $r? . ■'. It ■:< ’ 'XXXiX 

* ■ * , 4 ... - .A-’ 1 * . -• ■■ ■ *- X'.X-X: , : iV"* ,'/.rA j.l l ■ ■ ' |rv4**! 

.• • ♦.. ; • ■. ,',v ;■*' . ,■■*.-* .,1 ■ • 11 if ■''t. ••' ;v - •• ' tz - it * * 1 V 

• .-\r * ' - , E H 1 ■.'->'A 

■■■■;■;■; A,;;.:;;": 






UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 


FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 


lit Rvftly, Pteaso Refer to 

PUa 'Ko. ' • 


St. Louis. Missouri 


July 30, 1960 


#1015205 11/10/2005-' 

DECLASSIFIED BY »ue/60309/taw/wIV/khr 
OK 11 10 2005 •• .. 1 • • . ' 


ACTION 

RACIAL MATTERS 


The July 28, 1969, issue of the St. Louis Globe- 
Democrat’’, a daily newspaper published in St. Louis, Missouri, 
contained an article on page 9A which related that members 
of ACTION visited two churches in St. Louis County on Sunday, 
July 27, 1969. 


ACTION is a local Negro activist group in St. 
Louis, Missouri, whose members have engaged in 
various acts of civil dispbedlance in the past 


The article related that ACTION members went to 
St. Monica*8 Catholic Church, 12136 Olive Boulevard, Creve 
Coeur, about 10:00 A.M., but left when they discovered a 
missionary priest was preaching on black Africa. They went 
to St, Timothy's Episcopal Church, 808 North Mason Road, 
in West St . Louis County where one of the members. I 

_Jaddressed’ the congregation for about 15 minutes 

on the subject of «?hite racism. 


According to the article, ACTION members returned 
to St, Monica's about 11:00 A.M. and talke d to about 75 parish 
members in the church basem ent. I I explained ACTIONS 

goals and when he finished, | _I of St * 

Monica's described the Catholic archdiocese*s assistance 
to the ghetto communities. 


Detective 1 1 st. Louis c ounty Police 

Department, advised on July 27, 1969, that no arrests or 
racial incidents accompanied the above described speeches 



PROPERTY OF FBI . . 

This communication and its contents are 
loaned to you by the FBI, and neither it 
nor its contents are to be distributed 
outside of the agency to which loaned, 

11 - Bureau ;• :-Mlv^;USA->:-: 

m- st. Louis-: } “ * M ? erv ice )k:7 

jXl57-NEW) 

v •!:,v ) ; ;.IMG:ck >v ^ 


group i. • • 

Excltrd^d from 
Automa tlp<R>w 
grading and\ 
dedassiflcat 


jitARCMtO^ 

SERlAUZCO 

<N0f.XE0_^_ 






RE: ACTION 


'■V-' lit. |_I St. Louis Police Department, 

Intelligence Unit advised op July 28, 1969, that a group 
of people who cabled themselves the ,f $t. Louis Metropolitan 
Area Citizens Council" appeared at St. Pius V Church, 
intersection of G?apd and Utah, St. Louts, Missouri. They 
passed out literature calling for $30 million ip reparations 
to U.S. Citizens”; from those_«ho have been ’’rioting, looting" 
and committing arson ( . I [ advised the group appeared 

to contain several former supporters of GEORGE WALLACE, There 
were no arrests,in connection with the above. r - r 


.,j Oh, Juiy 29, 1969, Detective | I of 
Police Department,, advised that about 15 to 20 : 
ACTION picl^et ; 1|ed Southwestern Dell Telephon e Coi 
that firm's alleged 


employment practices. |_Jsta 

that ACTION demonstrated for about a one-half hour and 
departed the area without incident or arrest. 





UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 

FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 


In Replyi Plane Refer to 
File No. 


Title ACTION 


Character RACIAL MATTER 


7/30/69 


Reference St. Louis air tel to Bureau 


All sources (except any listed below) whose identities 
are concealed in referenced communication have furnished reliable 
information in the past* 


AfcL INFORMATICS CONTAINER. . 

HEREIN UNCLASSIFIED “ ’ * 

UAT:.i L- It)* 20OS BY aac/ 60'3ti 9K £ ,/m 1 1 / kb.r: 


TKte document contains neither recommendations nor conclusions oi the FBI 
ol the FBI and is loaned to your agency; It and Its contents ore nol to bs dia 
your agency. 




FD-36 (Rev, 5-22-641 


ALL INFORMATION CONTAINED 
HEREIN IS UNCLASSIFIED 

late II-10-2005 BY auc/60309/tam/rolt/kfrr 


Transmit the following in 


AIRTEL 


AIRMAIL 


Date: 7/30/09 


(Type in plaintext or code) 


(Priority) 


FROM: 


DIRECTOR, FBI (157-10782) (105-139818) 
SAC, ST. LOUIS (105-4084) 


SUBJECT: ACTION 

RM x -- r 

Enclosed for the Bureau are eleven (11) copies 
of a self-explanatory LHM. 

This' LHM is being distribute^ to the following 
local agencies: • ■, 

U,S, Attorney, Secret Service, 113th MI Group. 

■'■it' 

This LHM is being classified etmgidaaiijT because 
it contains information from confidential informant of 
continuing value, , 

Source is 


4 - Bureau (Enel. 11) (RM) (2-157-10782) 
as ‘ (2-105-139818) 

H - St. Louis (2 -105-40841 ACTION _ 


IMG:ck 

( 11 ) 

UV-/ 


i , Louis Metropolitan Area 
Ltigens Councilj 


~ 76 


SERIALIZED 

INDEXED_“ 

flLFO 


Approved: 


. Sent 


.M Per 


Speciql Agent In Charge 





Author 

Cditon 


disturb* *»r. • :rc 
lontiectioc v!tv the 


v»* ,f Spoc© Below) 


I u 

I ■Peace Rsly Here : ■ '! 


A peace rally In which sevtr/nl 
ktindred persons particip.;?c< 
wvkd antlclinmcticolly yev.cr- 
day when the featured spejl e. 
failed to appear. 
t „S idney hens, a New York 
i ivulC* unionist and author, was 
scheduled fo address (he f*r?nv 
oncrators at 4 p.m. alter »ney 
n\mched from the plaza north 
ov City flail to St. Louis Univer¬ 
sity. Sever* 1 other persons 
spoke briefly in Lens’5 phec. 
Tfccy. were interrupted by h*ck- 
lert. 

T u c marchers, led by men 
cn;rytng‘American flags and 
c o i f i n •[ i k e boxes <• aped in 
black, displayed signs demand- 


int; 

that the Vietnam 

\Var 

be 

on.ii 

d and that nuclear 

..•estoon 5 

*a ;* 

voHshed. 



Ts 

•' ;rcp were stopp- 

• by 

po¬ 

M, . 
*% 

;;*ur the plcw bf 

ore 

ll ho 

:o 

•.v- be^fir and jiv. 

l ..urn- 

£T.V. 

s for peace or. 

,*ov 

XQ. 

TV.; 

. wre Matthew 

•liii’ij 

, 26 


*. old, of ihu aon 

!0C>. 

of 

x.■ 

h.Ciu-il i Avenue.; 

4 V 

Oil* 


;..bby, ?fl, of J .(i: j 

* 

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•>ck 

$' 

•\u. i’WLnty-Thira 




.un is a S>. T>. 

•Is . 

.ea 

Ik 

• cr.intive of the ' 

•Ufo 

uia 

r . 

.. Vv,.r.vcrs Union ;;v 

.! Hr 

ir* 

* V I 

:zc m of ,t boycott 

agu 



America Is a safe America .” 
He was not challenged by the 
peace demonstrators. 

The march was scheduled for 
this week to mark the anniver¬ 
saries Aug. 6 and 9 of the bomb¬ 
ing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. 

Speakers at the rally included 
Larry Swingle, a member of the 
Young Socialists Alliance; Sid- 
Young Socialists Alliance, and 
Ed Glover, Minneapolis, an ex- 
GI opposed to tho war. 

The marchers w a 1 k e d five 
abreast, and the crowd extend¬ 
ed more than two blocks. The 
march was led by two members 
of Veterans For Peace In Viet¬ 
nam carrying American flags. 
One of the flags had been torn 
in two. The bearer suid the flag 
was about 100 years old and hnd 
been torn accidentally. 

When tho marchers reached 
the St. Louis University campus 
it was met by 10 persons carry¬ 
ing American flags. They shout* 
ed 41 Victory, then p«ace.” 

A member of the group, Ken 
.McCabe, said they represented^ 
the ,St. Louis Metropolitan Ciu- 
7en*s Council. The group with 
\: he flags sang ‘‘Onward Chris¬ 
tian Soldiery and the peace 
. marchers formed around (hem, 
singing *‘Ve Shall Overcome.” 


. wiling fubl-vgrr f 

:e r.Utd ~ jcldtn ; 1!? hhs h .V'U 


f.T'TTTvrV'’. x, r wr .\ r j >- 
. ... j ; y.r i 


; 


(Indicate page, name o! 
newspaper, city and state.) 


JLU SpcU 




di* / 


Character: 


Classliication 


Submitting Office: 


[ 1 Being lnvest.ga.ee? 











OipfliAo lit Saoce 6 q!ow] 


SI.LOUIS POST-DISPATCH s«a.. A« g . 10, mo 


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(Indicate pnqtjj name tot 

nowBpapoT, city cnti state*) 


mm 


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■' 

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mmn 


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EdiUoi 


Au tHor 
Editor; 


«>&£&* ->/ i$& h ■-. - ■ 

■ . ■ 

ulnam leading' a column ov detnonrirattir* Jlnhd' 

«Hy- Tha n, fln |«<J hi s {(;>«, 

I during the march, was more than fOC years’Ltd' 


Character: 


j CiasaHlcation; 

■| Submit tin q Office: 

j f ] Setng Investigated 



AIRMAIL 


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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 


FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 

#1015205 


11/10/2005 


DECLASSIFIED BY auc/60309/tam/mlt kbe 
DN U, 10 3 00 6 


St, Louis, Missouri 


1969 


ANTI-WAR RALLY, ST, LOUIS, MISSOURI, AUGUST 9, 1969 


Characterization of YSA appears in the appendix 


CONFIDENTIAL 

GrmJp^l 

Excludfed^lppmauto¬ 
matic dg^f^ading 
and de<uassi'fication 


This communication and its contents are loaned to you by the 
FBI, and neither it nor its contents are to be distributed 
outside of the agency to which loaned. 





ANTI-WAR RALLY, ST, LOUIS, MISSOURI, AUGUST 9, 1969 


PIC is a central meeting place for various 
Louis anti-war peace and student groups. 


St, Louis WCC is a local 1 group concerned with 
segregation, anti-Communism, and state rights. 


On JuJ,y 30, 1969, an article appeared oh page 4 
of the Alestle , a student newspaper at Southern Illinois Uni¬ 
versity, Edwards vi lie Campus, entitled "Vietnam Rally Set 
August 9," The article stated that the rally was being spon¬ 
sored by the August 9 Mobilization Committee. This committee 
was described as a coalition of peace, veterans, civil rights 
student, trade unionists, church, and political groups. The 
article stated four main demands on which the demonstration 
would focus: 


Bring all the troops home now 
Free speech for GIs, 

Abolish the draft. 

No more Hiroshima. 


2 






On August 3, 1969 f an article appeared on page 22a 
of the St, Louis Post-Dispatch, a daily newspaper published 
in St. Louis, entitled^Peace^bemonstration Scheduled for 
Saturday by Informal Coalition." The arti cle consisted c hiefly 
of an interview with) | andf 

They said that the coalition bad been formed as an umbrella 
group to suppo rt one big issue, an early end to the Vietnam 
War. | | is quoted in the article as saying that this 

march was a warm-up for a national march planned for Washington 
0, C, on November 15, 1969. 


i>)Z 




In the August 7, 1969, edition of Student Life , 
a student newspaper at Washington University, ^t. Lours,” o 
page one, an article annpuncing the captionedmarchsaid t 
the ra, lly would feature speakers | 

| and others. The article also sald-that a coalition 
of local groups called the August 9 Mobilisation Committee 
was organizing the demonstration. 


I _ l of a group 

of public housing tenants who have been engaging 
in a "rent strike" since February of 1969. 



b2 

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b'/D 


3 




ANTI-WAR RALLY. ST. LOUIS. MISSOURI. AUGUST 9, 1969 



b7D 

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bG 


On August 4, 1969, a leaflet was anonymously fur¬ 
nished St. Louis Office that had been passed out at the Uni 
versity of Missouri at St, Louis during the previous week. 


On August 9, 1969, Bureau Agents observed approxi¬ 
mately 650 to 700.people g athered at 12th and Market Streets 
hatBoan 9.nn and 2:30 p.m. was introduced as 

_] for the march and spoke about the purposes of 

the march. He was followed by| ] who spoke briefly 







ANTI-WAR RALLY, ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI, AUGUST 9 


about the scheduled events for the day. 1 _ 

self-described as an [ 

| spoke briefly oi his experiences in Vie 
He emphasized that he had been an ordered killer of women 
and children. - - - - 


At approximately 3:15 p.m. the march began. The 
marchers moved west on Market Street, five abreast. Tljey 
carried several American flags and two United Nations flags 
The march followed the pre-arranged p arade route and arrive 
at St. Louis University at 3:45 p.m, [_ 


The principal sch eduled speaker 
failed to arrive. I 


were the| |who said that "Nikon had his 

Chance and blew it." He called this "Nixon's war"- an<| said 
tha t it was time to pu t the pressure on. The. next speaker 
was | I who spoke about her recent trip to Washing 

ton, D. C. and about her conversations with Senators Symington 
and Eagleton. She stated that she believes the senators are 
no longer receptive to the problems and that they are too 
isolated from the masses. She did npt elaborate further. 


I Jthen presented a program for 1 the fall 
uded a general planning session/-to be held on Sep¬ 
tember 27, 1969, and a student strike scheduled for November 
14, 1969, in support of the November 15, 1969, march in Washington 
D. C. The speeches ended at approximat ely 4;^5 p.m. After 
a short intermission[ (called for a collec¬ 

tion, The collection was taken rrom those present by the 







Vietnam was organized as a front group of Y$A in 
St, Louis in May of 1969, and that it is presently 
composed almost exclusively of elderly Communist 
Party of Missouri members. 

Also present at the rally were approximately 20 
counter demonstrators who represented St. Louis Metropolitan 
Citizens Council. This group carried American flags and sang 
"Onward Christian Soldiers," They also carried posters saying 
"A Strong America is a Safe America," 


The St. Louis Metropolitan Citizens Council 
is identical with the St. Louis WCC characterized 
above. w 

_ [ advised on August 9, 1969, that there b .._re 

approximately eight members of the Communist Party of Missouri 
who took part in the march and rally. None of them were speakers 
or were in a leadership capacity during any of the activities. 




The St, Louis P olice Department ad vised that pri o 
to the start of the march | l and f 

were given summonses charging them with peace disturbance. 
They were cited when they engaged in a spitting and shoving 
altercation, St. Louis Police Department advised that no 
other incidents or arrests occurred in connection with the 


march or rally. 


6 






YOUNG SOCIALIST ALLIANCE ' 
(ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI CHAPTER) 


advised that the Yi 





•J * 




YOUNG SOCI ALIS T ALLIANCE 

The May, I960, issue of the "Young Socialist" (YS) , 

Page 1, Column-3, disclosed that during April 15=17, I960, 
a national organization entitled, "The Young Socialist Alliance" 
stated that this organization was forced by the nationwide 
supporter clubs of the publication YS„ 

The above issue, Page 6, set forth the Founding 
Declaration of the YSA. This declaration stated that the YSA 
recognises the Socialist Workers Party (SWP) as the only 
existing political leadership on class struggle principles, 
ai-.d that the supporters of the YS have come into basic polit¬ 
ical solidarity with the SWP on the prise ip: l.es of revolutionary 
socialism, / 

i, i. 

On March 10, 1967, a source advised that the YSA was 
formed' airing 1957, by youth or various left socialist tendencies, 
parh-cu arly members and followers of the SWP. The source further 
‘adyi'i-ad that the YSA has recently become more. open about 
J*,dini u tiag that it is the youth group of the: SWP and that an SWP 
, ^■^representative has publicly stated that the";YSA is the SWP v s 
■ r V' youth group. 

' ■ The National Headquarters of the YSA are located in 

Room 532-536, 41 Union Square West, New York City. 

On October 31, 1967, a second source advised that at the 
22nd National Convention of the SWP held in New York City from 
October 583, 1967, to October 29, 1967, it wfcs stated that the 
, YSA. remained as the main recruiting ground-for new SWP members. 


The SWP-has been designated pursuant to Executive 
Order 10450, ■ 7‘ V tv 5 *>•» 


>*0 
L ! t- 

H J,H 


■o 


:i S; 


■ jui 


VI 



UNIT m STATES R1PAHTMENT OF JUSTIPS 
FEDERAL BUREAU OP INVIgTIQATIQN 


St, Lewis, Missouri 
August X3, 19@9 


Title ANTIWAR SAM, ST, LOUIS, 

MISSOURI, AUGUST 3, I36S 

Reference Letterhead memorandum dated 

August 13, loss, at St, Lewis, 
Missouri, 


AU sources (eseept any Heted bei@w> whose identities 
are concealed in referenced communication have furnished reUabi 
information in the past, 


This document contains neither recommendations nor conclusions 
of the FBI, It is the property of the FBI and is loaned to 
your agency; it and its contents are not to be distributed 
outside your agency. 




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT; OF JUSTICE 


FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 


St. Louis, Missouri 


August 18, 1969 


ACTION 

RACIAL MATTERS 


.On August 17, 1969, Lieutenant ! | St. 

Louis Police Department, advised that members of ACTION ap¬ 
peared on August 17, 1969,. at St. Jotin 's Lutheran Church 
intersection of Morganford and Beck, and St. Anthony of Padua 
Catholic Church, 3140 Meramec Street, .St*.- Louis. These two 
churches had been visited the previous Sunday, August 10, 
1969, by members of the St. Louis Metropolitan .Area Citizens 
Counci 1 ■ (SLMACC) , .£' ' '■ : * • i", t, f r ■' 


ACTION is a local black activist group in St 
Louis whose membership includes both whites and 
Negroes. The group has engaged in acts of civil 
disobedience and disturbance in the past. 


SLMACC is a local organization of individuals 
primarily concerned with white segregation and states 
rights. ^ 


The members of ACTION distributed literature attack¬ 
ing "white racism" of Christian churches and calling for finan 
cial assistance to the Black community, . 


l also advised that a group of individuals 
CTION appeared at the St, Louis Cathedral on Lindell 
It is to be noted that ACTION is prevented from 
e St. Louis Cathedral by a recently issued Federal 

. - ?? 

. .. ' • ■ SEARCHED 

. ''SEWAthE D^/. .^ 17 

* • “A *. FILED‘'''T'- ' 


This communication and its contents ai*e loaned to- you by the 
FBI, and neither it nor its contents are to be distributed 
outside of. the agency to which loaned,'^; ;, 




>■ V • •' 

■ .-: ■ H$Ff ■ ■ • 

■ . ' ■ f 7*.* 

r ■ l. * ■ . : * ■ .'. K . 't ■ ' 4 -W 




ACTION, RACIAL MATTERS 


1 1 

ir ' ?l : 

S \ ’ 




, l>6 
ijVE 


On August 17, I&89, LieutenstntT" 
Police department, advised that on August T? 


. St. Louis 
1969,members 


_ v ... ~ “ ■ --— f cutrmu^i^ 

oi iiie k.-t, uouis Metropolitan Area Citiadns Council appeared 
at St. Ambrose Catholic Church, S130 Villon Street, and St, 
Margaret Catholic Church, 3854 Fl&d Avenue, They distributed 
literature calling for "reparations"■to be paid to white victims 
ox riots and arson, \ p." 

- . 1 * -v ‘ *•*« ■ ‘.*' V .'4V 

/ ; Z ‘ ■ 

... Police reports reflect there were no racial incidents 

S’ rests in connection with any of thei above demonstrations 

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AIRMAIL 


AIRTEL 


DIRECTOR, FBI 


SAC, ST, LOUIS (103-4084) P 


FROM 


ACTION 

RACIAL MATTERS 


Ron jr to I, 8-17-69. : 

1 * * + * ”... 9 - ; "r 

Enclosed for the Bureau are 11 copies of an LHH 
reflecting church demonstrations on 8-17-69. 

Copies of this IBM axe being distributed locally 
to U. S* Attorney, Secret Service, and 113th MI Group III. 


2 - Bureau (Enc. 11)<RM) 

3 - St. Louis (1 - 109-4084)(ACTION) 

(1 - 9-2040) (BLACK MANIFESTO) 
<1 187-382) (SLUACC) 

JAF:amb . . V, ■. 

( 5 ) ; 


SiftRCHED 

.SERIfit'iEO 

INDEXED^ 

HIED_. 


FD -150 ifMv* 


Overland Couple Denies Racism 
lliabel; Supports 'Silent Majorityf 


' v By ROBERT LUCKEN 

G lobe* Pe m g cnt Staff filer 

An Overland couple, aiming 
*1 watchdog* over isiuts they 
feel concern iha "ulenE mijar- 
liy.” chid aim they are rid sis, 
eve n thou ah they personally 
favor Hgftguion. 

"Wet* riot against integra¬ 
tion." explains George Brusca. 
"For people who want it, thai'e 
Iheir Own bull nett/* 

Bruica. a general contractor 
In Overland, and hil wife. Mary, 
nre heading- up (he demonitn- J 
lion committee of the St. Louli 
Area Cmicni Council. 

During (he pan month, that 
committee hat been viHung 
churches, demanding repara¬ 
tions from black rloieri for 
properly damage. It Is t coun- 
ter-demand to black mil Kama, 
at eking reparation* for past in¬ 
justice* to (heir race. 

THE BRUSCA S aiy (heir at* 
for is aren't limited to (he 
church campaign. Members of 
their group hive been showing' 
up at peace demonslraliodi, 
grape worker picket line* ind 
art actively and openly oppos¬ 
ing efforts in high achooie un¬ 
dertaken. by (ha Student* for a 
Democratic Society and St* In¬ 
formation and Education Conn- 
cil nf the United Slate*. 

An aMf-group? 

"Sure, we're intl-wt'r* inti- 
Comtnunlai, we’re, anli-anything 
(hat break* down our country'* 
merits and Jaw* — we're anil 
anything that make* our at reel*, 
hornet and buiirveuai unsafe — 
we're an American group," 
Brusca explain*, 

"StE■ RE AN luumwmiui 
group No one (ells ys how to 
ope rice or whai io do Each 
aLtLi| hi* Ri own problem*. 
These ether people — 'mbitanti 
or Commurnsu. (hey re one and 
the same' — would io make 



nr into one big common farm," 

Brusca a*id Na group a main 
concern El to win back civil 
right* of everybody, 

Tha banning of the um of "for 
sate" dig ft* in St, Loult and 
other comm um ties, he declared, 
j* the latest example of right* 
being ell min tied. 

Mr*, Bruita mid recent cam¬ 
paigning outtida churche* — Gov. Georg* Wallace wcJ't be 


A OF OVERLAND 

maSSTTo Slack Militants. 

—Gfobe-Dafnfierit Photo 

In (he country la afraid to go 
out. 

“The newa media haa done 
nothing far the allewt majority," 
he declared. 

White not aligned to (he 
American Party, Bruica, said 
many Council member* are ad¬ 
vocate* es| Jia program*. 

ME CONCEDES he bopei 


([nd lean pdqe, nontn o( 

ntwBpapAr, city and a lata, \ 

° a6£ 

— p&tiK'W 




countering ao-c ailed black Sun 
daya - hi* ciuagd ihe Counein 
membirahlp fo irlpfe Ift recenl 
week*, 

"The response hai been ire- 
mendout." her husband add*, 

A similar group, he enfd, now 
■* being organ lied an the Eut 


the standard-bearer again — 
■They've put ■ typo of Wal¬ 
lace—(he n ew a mtdi r kit 
ruined him/' 

But hi* wife thintei differ¬ 
ently, 

H T realTy (hlftfc he'a iotfi| v 1to 
*ln' next time/ 1 "he said. 

Brusda foresees "i^pre Unreal 

1 Bj 


sumo 


Clo *<• t (J c a 11 on £ 

SulwillUnq Otlkc 
{ j Inv4*Hijoletf 

/S' ; 7~-S‘8AJ/ 



lih 

tol 




























FD-350 (Rev. 7-16-63) 


Man Opposing 
Black Militant: 


Tells of Threat 


An Overland contractor who 
has taken part In demonstra¬ 
tions demanding repayment 
from Negro rioters for property 
damage staid Monday he has 
gotten "numerous" threaten¬ 
ing telephone calls since a 
Globe-Democrat article de¬ 
scribed his activities. 

George Brusca said he noti¬ 
fied Overland and St. Loufcs 
County Police after anonymous 
callers threatened his f a m i 1 y 
with physica lharm and said his 
house would be burned down. 

Brusca and his wife Mary 
were interviewed by The 
Globe-Democrat i n connection 
with (heir presenting counter- 

! emands to black militants vAo 
re asking reparations for injfts- 
ces to Negroes. The couftle 
eads the demonstration cqfrn- 
Uttee of the St. Loufis Area 
Citizens Council. 


(Mount Clipping In Space Below) 



(Indicate page, name of 
newspaper, city and state.) 


/s* ... 


Date: ^L • & $ 


Author: 


Character: 


Classification: 

Submitting Office: Sa/??0 
Being Investigated 

/£2zJl±d^L 

SEARCHED.J^DEXEDj,.. 

SERIAU2F0..... ;sJ ^?f^W> , > . > ,. > _ 

AUG 2 7 1969 

OUIS 









UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 
FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 

St. Louis. Missouri 


In Reply, Pleat* Refer to 
File No. 


August 11, 1969 


ACTION 

RACIAL MATTERS 


On August 10, 1969, Patrolman I_ 

Richmond Heights, Missouri, Police P eparBn 
about 20 members of ACTION including | 

1 appeared at Little Flower 
Arch Terrace and Boland Avenues, Richmond : 
10, 1969, about 11:00 a.m. 


ACTION is a local black activist group in St 
Louis, whose membership Includes both whites and 
Negroes. The group has engaged in acts of civil 
dlsobediance and disturbance in the past. 


I _| with the permission of the. church officials 

addressed the congregation very briefly and other members of 
ACTION passed out leaflets which criticized ~&e "white racism" 
of the Catholic Church. 


The group then left without arrest or further Incident 


On August 10, 1969, Lieutenant ! _ I St* Louis, 

Police Department, advised that on August 10, 1969,members of 
the St, Louis Metropolian Area Citizens Council (SUlACC) ippeared 
at St. John's Luthern Church, intersection of Morganford and 
Beck, and St. Anthony of Padua Catholic Church, 3140 Meraraec 
Street, St, Louis. * .. • 


SLMACC is a local organization of individuals 
primarily concerned with white segregation and states 
rights. -i ’• ' ' 


This communication and its contents are loaned to you by the FBI 
and neither it nor Its contents are to be distributed outside of 
the agency to which loaned. 7 

... 

■. / ^ : sEAncHEO . • _, 

sdkaOzeo___ — 

•• • V * •' INDEXED ' 

• ‘ * -FILED •* . : 




ACTION . .7; 

The SLMACC members passed out lefflets ? uncial 08 

entitled "A WhlteCitlzens Manifesto" which 

reparations to be paid by Negro Voters tc/ white victims of arson 
and property destruction throughout the United States. 

The members left both churches without arrest or 
further incident. . 




6/11/69 


A3t$H AZh 


AISTSL 


DIRECTOR, *Bf • 

& j 1/ ■ V ^ 

SAC, at. LOUIS (105-4034) p 

1 V J 

racial hatters 


Re St. Louis teletype to Bureau, 8/10/69. 

. ", ■ r 1 ♦ ' ’> ; * ' r -* *, # ' . . t **■ « 

Enclosed for th© Buniu ere U copies of en USX 
reflecting church desonatmtion® on 8/10/09. 

: ; Copie® of this I MU ere being distributed locally 
to 0. a. Attorney, Secret Service, end 113th m Group. 

l ore under 
Ho investigation 


active investigation by this division 
is actively pursued re local citizens council 


Bureau (Enel. u> (300 
St. Louis 

<1 - 105-4084 ACTICK) 

CL - 9-2040 Black Manifesto) 


srAf>C 

SEItiA 

mazy. 





SEASCHETf_ 

sewalp*i 


Croup To Press GalL 

For Riot Reparations 


By ROBERT H, COLLINS 
Of thi pGU-Dtipitefc scaff 
A manifesto demanding repif- 
*(Joa» for the cost of rising, 
JaQUng, irwn and other crimi- 
ntl act* will be distributed by 
tht Citizens Council it numer- 
CLii churchei in tht St, Louii 
in* over i period o-f several 
rh< Foit-Diapatch w* 9 
told ytiiirdiy. 

Tht wording of th« Citizen'* 
Mi«[futo > nd ft* diitrihutifln 
f«v# bno approved by the 
board of director* ef tb* St, 
L dti (t Metropolitan Area Ciri- 
«<u Cowicfl, 

A group funding out tfte min. 
fftito will visit * church in the 
City fodty, Mn. S h I r Je y M, 
KH a member of the board 
and of the executive committee, 
laid yesterday. 

Iha d e e J f & e d to □ ime die 
chorcbbutwidthoCniiini 

Coundf would wnd group* lo 
church bj of varinit dmomtoa- 
tioni during the minffetto cam¬ 
paign 

Copfai of <h* document were 
distributed Jetf Sunday by 14 
men and ntne women it St, FtUi 
V Catholic Church, J3W South 
, G r *"d Boulevard. d u r J n g the 
noon Mm, f, [ am & Catholic, 
aed lilt other member* of thft 
group who pined Out the mini* : 
fiJto ire Catholic*/' Mr*. Kiel i 
,*a|d. 

The CJUren i M ■ n i f e j t o \ 
litlei; i 

"Cod give me the right to i 
w o r i h I p 1ft peace. The Firit i 
Amendment of the Conarituilon t 
of the United State* guarantee* J 
that right to me, Thu* far, the 
Supreme Court ha* not denied J 
tMe dght to me. I 

IJiiwuBtai fnttmipdoni p 
*Tlerelore. I ■ citizen of the o 
Unit« Siam, demand that my S 
wonhtp and that of TO y fellow 
dtileni shall not be disturbed 
by Inviiiom of minority, or me- ft 
jwiiy. group*, nr groups of wild c 
animals, uttering ridkuloup de* L 
mifidi and threatening to de- c 
vour me and my government if N 
thae demand* t« not met. bi 
"I demand that tz be made h 
life for me and my fellow cUI- 
eioi to waist die street* of any tfi 
clly or hamlet in the country, « 
day Or flight, without being in pl 
danger of being robbed, mot- la 
dered or raped. ^ 

M demand t h < f rep a ration * ar 
be paid to mt and my fellow wi 
cltizioa for the con* of rioting, sit 
fooling, onon and other cr<mi- be 
fial ac( a. Theie cosit amount la 
fjLWO.HO.MO per year and ia 
(hill be repaid by the per petra- Sci 
tori of these crime* with year* on 
of hard fnbor Jo federal and to 
,aLate prfitMt. toi 

■ l 'If iheto d c m • n d i are not I 
mel H then I riul] band together Co 
with million* of my fellow ier 
Americans and elect public offi* wh 
cliI* who will accede to my de- Mi 
ntandi, p1e 

Tb/eat of Private Attlee the 
"Should the United Statea be 5 
so devoid of itrong leaden that Coi 
men of thle chancier cannot be me 
found, then my fellow ciliieiu or | 
and I will form taw enforce mem m a 
Bt^upi that wilt restore puce mil 
and tranquility to our land, TIC 


la- "My colon^C 'orcfatfterj car- 
n* ried firearms (o their pfacea of 
worihlp. i pray that I mey oot. 
re he forced to do ao, 

14 "Signed, A Concerned CJilien. 
u« Member of St. Louii Metropoii- 
Ui fan Are* Citiaam Council, Poit 
it Office Bo* mi Klricwood, Mn. 
c. WI52." 

ie With tba mmlfeito, the C!U- 
i* Kn* Council will diarrjbuiE at 
el the churches > lea Met a iking, 1 
"Are you aware that you are 
o paying the laiarEta through fed« 
*r*\ teaes of at lent three of 
O the ecUviatj partlripating In the, 
it ^American and lecrilegiou* 
n church dlimplioni in the St. 
f Louii tree? 

fl ' They are Siller Cedll* Gold- 
d man, Luther Milchdl and Ivory 
Parry, Theie peop^ ala em¬ 
ployee Erf HDC (Human Ktvai, 

9 opm«rt Corporation), a fp(i*d 
^ Statu agency. 

* Calif For Leri tea 

1 "Ton can help by writing 
' Wiyor A. J, Cerventei in the 
1 City of St, Lout* and Super*»r 

* Lawrence K. Roo* f &, Loud 
; County courUtouie. [dayton, 
f Mo., and demand these people 

bt ddmiued from the federal 
i payroll,w. 11 

Mn, Kiel *ild that lebden of 
the CUiieru CciuicU ha« decid¬ 
ed to Initiate (half reparation! 
pro gram "because we believe It 
*■ tJmt fa PWple to beiin wan¬ 
dering about whose civil right* 
are being denied. We thiolt you 
wil[ find i| ii the decent rejpon- 
ilble citlieru whose right* era 
being denied. 

Wl I* our hope (hat ihjeie citi¬ 
zens wiii begin wririflg their 
Senator*, Repreientativay, may¬ 
or* and olher elected official* 
to demand the return qf their 
loit rights and freedomi." 

In the opinion of CHIuns 
Council leaden. Mr*. Kiel **- 
terted, "pricit* end mlnifteri, 
who go itong with the Black 
Manifesto are denying the peo¬ 
ple who attend their chorchea 
their civil righfi." 

She satd that the Ciliien* 
Council was urging church 
member* "|o go to their prints, 
or pastor and demand I hat Iheir 
money not go to my ridiculous 
mltdam group, auch at the AC¬ 
TION mob- 


(Mount Clipping In Spflta B*low) 


(Indicate paqt. naina at 
ntwapfiaer, clly an* IID|«,| 


J&t **■/?<'* s 
S'css t '/jSi're** 


ChnrueiarL 

at 

ClUa «b lieu Non: 

SkibmlMInq Offtec J'AOJt' 

□ Balnq Hqq|.d 


FD-350 (Rev. 7-16-6 3) 




(Mount Clipping In Space Below) 


White Group 
I-Hands Ou| 
Manifesto 

About 25 members oF the St. 
Louis Metropolitan Area Citi¬ 
zens' Council handed out copies 
o f a two-page mimeographed 
"citizens* manifesto" to wor- 
sbi per s at two South Side 
churches yesterday. 

The manifesto of the all-white 
group calls for an end to church 
demonstrations such as those 
carried out in recent months by 
black militant groups. It calls 
also for reparations to'be paid 
by rioters for damages caused 
in noting, looting and arson. 

The council members report¬ 
ed that they were weU received 
at St. John's Lutheran "Church, 
373S Morganford Road, and St, 
Anthony of Padua Catholic 
Church, 3140 Meramec Street, 
"No one has refused to take 
copy/' one man said at 
John's churen, 

lA rL Viol a AndersoiffilPS Ar¬ 
senal Mre'e™'"* "mpmoer of the 
council's boa of directors, 
said, "Many have said it was 
time we Were, doing- some¬ 
thing." 

The manifesto also says that 
the council would open private 
schools in the St, Louis area, 
"Private education is the only 
legal, honorable and practical I 
way to protect your child's | 
physical safety and educational 
future/ 1 it says, i 

The paper decries the Su- r 
preme Court decision of 1954 ) 
putting an end to segregated ;■ 
schools. It said the decision had I 
(ed to "forced integration." 

Mrs. Anderson said that mem- j 
b e r s h i p in the council^ had r 
greatly increased since its \ 
members began distributing the j 
manifesto three Sundays ago. j 
She said that no answer had - 
been received from Mayor Al¬ 
fonso J, Cervantes to a letter | 
she wrote two weeks agA de^ 

i t ending that the Negro d even¬ 
trations be stopped and mose 
iking part be prosecuted, i 
"We intend to be heard re- 
lard leas, even if we have to 
carry these manifestos door-to- 
door/ 1 Mrs, Anderson said/ 


(Indicate page, name cl 
newspaper* city and state,J 


3>^> sr/ews 
- 


Date: 

Edition; 

Author: 

Editor: 

Title: 


^ f 



Character; 
or 

Claeei flcatl on: 
Submitting Office; 

j Being Investigated 


bTC 




/S') — 


/searched _itMDJ 

SERlAi I7’ ?l ' 1 








Author: 


Editor: 


Tttlei 


[ | Being Investigated 


SEARCHED. 

SERIflU^cn 


sks Reparations 

Citizens' Manifesto 


(Indicate page, name of 
nswfipapor, City and state.) 


/S/? sr/ocs/j 

— /7/0£/r0£7#0//?rf t 


!| Put Out at Churches ■ 

I About 35 memlbprsof the St Lbuijs Citizens" Council! bonded , 
ojt copies of a two-page/■citizens 1 ' manifesto 1 * to worshippers at 
two South Side churches Sundays r -$\* .■ 


. The manifesto, distributed for 
the last four Sundays, calls for 
an; end to church demonstra¬ 
tions < such as those carried out 
in recent months by blade mili¬ 
tant groups* It calls fdr repara¬ 
tions to be paid by rioters for 
damages caused in rioting, loot¬ 
ing, and arson* 

Mrs* Viola Anderson, 2105 Ar¬ 
senal st., a member of the coun¬ 
cil's board, said about 15 young 
people .distributed the “manifes¬ 
to" at St* Ambrose Catholic 
Church, 5130 Wilson ave* About 
20 adults handed out copies at 
St. Margaret's Catholic Church, 
3854 Flad ave, 

Mrs. Anderson said she has 
received letters from three 
church pastors asking for copies 
of, the manifesto so that they 
may distribute them to their 
congregations* 

Mrs. Anderson said member- 
, ship in the council has in¬ 
creased since its members be¬ 
gan distributing the manifesto 
in late July, 

''We are not racists," she ex¬ 
plains, *^but we are realists. We 
know that the races are happier 
when they are separate and that 
^eq-uai rights will not be the an¬ 
swer unless Negroes assume 
r equal responsibility as well** 1 

Mrs, Anderson said the group 
has-a d op t e d a symbol, the 
American and Confederate flags 
with staffs crossed* "The 
American flag represents our 
American heritage and the Con¬ 
federate flag represents the cor- 
. nerstone of the Constitution, 
states 1 rights/' she said. 


FD-3S0 {Rev, 7-16-63) 


Dato: f./f-e*? 

Edition: 


Character; 


ClaBSJfica lion; 


S/m# 


Submitting Office: 


"We are 100 per cent* law-a- 
1 biding, patriotic Americans who 
Intend to he heard/ 1 she said. 

She added the c o u n c 11 still 
■*' plans to operate private schools 
iri the St* Louis area. "Private 
education is the only legal, hqn- 
! cfable and practical way to pro¬ 
tect your child's physical safety / 
and educational f u t u r e, M the j 
I manifesto slates. 








iDENTIAL 


ont^automatic 


ading and 


UNITED STATKH PLPAHTMENT OF JUSTICE 


FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 


St, Louis, Missouri 


In Reply, PI**** Rtjfr 
File No, 


October 31, 1969 , 


11 / 10/2005 


#1015205 


DECLASSIFIED BY auc/60309/tsm/mlt:/kbr 
O U 11-10-2005 


VIETNAM MORATORIUM 
ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI, 
OCTOBER 15, 1069 


On October 15, 1969, activities in the St. Louis, 
Missouri, area included, workshops, parades, peace masses, 
memorial services, teach-ins, panels, rallies and the gathering , 
of signatures on petitions< These activities took place at >( 
high schools, on college campuses, at hospitals and in the b3 

downtown area of St. Louis. The theme'£ were "Bring all the 
Troops Home Now" and "End the War Now".! 


W A?/ f ' 

The PIC is located at 6244 Delmar, St. Louis, 
Missouri, and is a meeting place for all St. Louis 
anti-war groups. It is also headquarters for distri¬ 
bution of anti-war and New Left literature in the 
St, Louis area, searched /t- j - 

SERIALIZED - 

j iwnEXED 

The WILPF is an international.peace group with 
chapters in many American cities. 


PROPERTY OF FBI L 

This communication and its contents 
are loaned to you by the FBI, and neither 
it nor its contents are to be distributed 
outside of the agency to which loaned. 




a o 


■* ■*.Vfj• 


VIETNAM MCUATORIUM 
ST, LOUIS, MISSOURI 

OCTOBER 15, 1969 ’ * 

■ i - , 

The YSA is characterized in the appendix. 

v , 1 

The AFSC is a national Quaker organization with 
offices throughout the United States, , 


The NBC is self described as a national organization 
created following the 1968 Democratic, National Conven¬ 
tion to carryout the policies put forth by presidential 
candidate Eugene McCarthy regarding, an early end to 
the Vietnam War, The St. Louis Branch is located at 
751 Radcliffe, St. Louis, Missourijj ■* 

The SLCEIWV is a local front group' of YSA set 
up in May, 1969, in an attempt to gain wider support 
for the anti-war policy of YSA. , 



W; The SLWCC is a group of conservative individuals 
favoring national policy. ,, 

“I The YAF is a national conservative group made up 
mol 11 y of s t ude nt s. .* f . 


t.A : The following is a breakdown of the activities which 
occurred October 15* 1969, in St. Louis areaV, 




V; *. co: 







VIETNAM MORATORIUM 
ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 
OCTOBER 15, 1969 


Forest Park Community College (FPCC) 


On October 13, 1969, |_Jmade available the 

attached schedule of events for the school. FPCC has an enrolling 
of 5,736. ■ V, 


CONF 






DULt OF EVENTS FOR OCT. IS. 


Rally o+ the flag pole ' 

Music Is planned from 11:00 to 2:00 on the patio 

Films about the War will be shown (0-110) • . ; 

z - 1 

The Gateway Theater Group will present various happenings related 
to the War (A Lounge) j ■ * */ 

FVCC Theater Group wllI present several scenes from Vjet Rock CC-110) 
Debate on the War (A-II2) , 


There will be a panel later In, the afternoon; room and time to be announced 
A booth will be In 0-Tower frpm Oct. 13-17 to pass out and sell materials. 


Films will be shown from 


f ; these activities, please contact 


who the jvlctim? Speak 








VIET Km MORATORIUM 
ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 
OCTOBER 15. 1969 


J On October 15, 1969, | | advised that classes 

at FPMj were not cancelled and attendance was slightly below 
normal' Source advised that during the afternoon five persons 
were nested at FPCC in connection with disturbances which 
grew-^ut of the moratorium activities. Source stated that 
sevja^ral hundred students gathered at noon for a rally near 
the flag pole. When students tried to lower the flag to half- 
mast, a scuffle with security guard s resulted. During this 
the f lag was pulled down and torn, i 

| brought out a new flag, and raiSSH it . HS tried TO 
speak but was shouted; down by students veiling- nhsnpntips, 

St. Louis Police Department arrested_[ 


They were charged with mut 


ers identified b 


J were also arrested for interfering with police 
ana peace disturbance during the scuffle and fist fights 
which followed the flag pole Incident. 


, Jadvised that no property damage occurred 

and that roiiowmg the arrests noted above the situation 
cooled down. He advised that at its peak the demonstration 
attracted 1500 students and onlookers. 


|_ ladvlsed that the planned activities 

took place as scheduled during the morning hours and that 
there were no incidents concerning any of them except as 
mentioned above. He advised that workshops and films were 
not heavily attended, and that afternoon events were cancelled 
following the flag incident. 


Florissant Valley Community College (FVCC 


On October 15, 1969, |_ 

October 15, 19691 schedule of activ 


J made available 
es at FVCC, 





Scluxlll 11) Ilf kVfillU 


1 Hi *' 1 " ' 1 1 

[\ 1 ,01 Its, MTKSOUUl 

I CTOPK it Ut. 3j)fi£_ _ 


[JttoHer, 15 - Vietnam Moratorium Da 


v . , 

0:00 a.rri. -,4:00 p.m. Short films in basement of Gym (Registration Area) 
: * A Time Out of War , Toys on a Field of Blue, 

Face of,'Wav\ Hb admission charge. 


10:00 a.m, 


ion charge. 


9:00 a.m. In quadrangle: An explanation of the Vietnam Moratorium Movement 
for Peace. Open microphone (anyone wishing to. speak* may do so), V 

I 1 

10:00 a.m, In quadrangle: President of the Junior College District, 

Dr, Joseph Cosand. Speech on the war, peace, anC education. v 

Question period to follow, ■ . 'j ; 

10:30 a.m, In quadrangle: Dennis Cummins. Speech followed by {question period. 

’■ . ■.. i ■ : 

11:00 a.m. In quadrangle: A' scene from "Viet Rock". 

11:30 a.m. In quadrangle: Music. . I- 

12:00 noon In quadrangle: Psychodram/v, : : 

1:00 p.m. In quadrangle: Ray Stith, President of Florissant Valley Community 
College, followed by students from Washington University presenting 
'■ five minute position papers on Vietnam. y 

1:30 p.m. Discussion groups led by the above Washington University students.'. 

6:00 p.m., Departure time for car-caravan from front of the Communications 

.Building to Washington University Field House. Dr. George Wald, - 
Nobel Prize winner and peace advocate will speak at 8:00 p.m. 
through the courtesy of the Ferguson Memorial Lecture Series. . 


Anyone who wishes to help distribute information, take surveys, etc. (all materials 
.supplied) on downtown St. Louis street corners, for a part or all of the day, should 
contact Rich Chapman at,531-3035, or volunteer at the Peace Table in the Student Union. 









VIETNAM MORATORIUM 
ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 
OCTOBER 15. 1969 


[advised that the above activities were held 
outside as scneauiea and that no incidents were noted. He 
advised that at most times throughout the day 100 - ISO people 
were observed listening to various speakers. He stated that 
the group changed continually with different students stopping 
to listen during free period or between classes. Source advised 
that there are 5,065 students enrolled at F,V,C.C. He further 
advised that few if any classes were cancelled and that 
attendance appeared to be normal. Source stated that there was 
a great deal of literature, announcing the Moratorium, passed 
out at FVCC. \ ' 


Meramec Valley Junior College (MVJC 


On October 15, 1969J_pnade available the 

schedule of events at MVJC for October 15, 1969. He advised 
that there was considerable publicity In the form of leaflets 
and fliers announcing Moratorium activities. i 





CN201 


^ nurw-ui MOHivromuM 
j NT, Lt'iriN, MtNNOUUI 
■ KTom:u is. ii>»o 


HINAt Nr_)IKI* | »M;j 
lOffJ'OIMt VJ J-ICtlrtTOKTHM 


ACTIVITY 


B:0;i f <H> Joach-Jn - 

■ T 1 t 

Open ftf a:;e--Tha 
4 Impac t ci.f the War 
Is on Values 


jiayo imijj £ 

ifuCK 

w 

* * QiUidrmigle (North) 


IK^^IK^Cjn 
Hr* KrAimr 


Hr* JHtnrio 


?:D 0 ^| X Qpcii Clane-Tho 

Jr] Impact of the War 

m Colic go a 

9 : CX>-10:00 locturo The Hal opr 

and Ghendetry of Warfare 


Mr- Dunne 


•L „ i ^ ' t* 1 i 

r ' Dr. holder ' -:■ k; 

^ Hr, CillJcepie V^/V 

h * , ( M 

Mis** Bergman- ' f .. m' 


5?:(XM0;0D TeablWIn , CNRP 3 Mis# Dcrgmai 

t0i1i-2!00 kieturc-Tho Historical Quadrangle (Worth) Mr* Smiths. 

ItaeJtgrcuuut of .the War ' ‘ ' "' 


11:00-1?; DO lectures- Forol(^> Policy Bin OR 
toward Viet Warn 


Hr* Baker ’* * \. r \ 


1 R: 00 -1:00 I Jovi« - *'Th e Ha g:Le 1 an 1 * 

1R; 00 -1 i 00 (: ue rJ 11 ;v The ate r a nd 

■ Folks inking ' 

.1:00-3: 00 l#ec fcurfe : JSconomic 
> Troblumu of the War 


Mr* Wheeler p 


Quaiidrangle (Worth) Mr, Zancter,;;- 

- lj ; ' 

Qu a d r a liglo (No rth) r Hr * Broun . ' ■; ’’f.,; 


1: CXI -*i 1 00 Open jjClass 

fpOO-^QO 

R: 00 - 3:00 Tench-*In 


2:00-3**00 


.Study of Anti- War 
Toetry 


? J JO-h :0O Ope 1 1 Ho nun 


CS11 9 ■ Mr, Mitchell ; - v *'& / * 

CNRR3 t . : 

1411 Oh Mr* Jlicgelson ■, ' 

thiol Mr* Risflover l ^ ~" ] 

) r f " ., ." M 

Quadrangle (North) VJhcolor r V-m -mv 

\ ' I Mr* Cravens" i 'm ■ 


; Hr* Durham T- V.V ; 


■ V- ; ! Mr* Ko-ti 

Ml- 


3:00-6:00 l\ ViJnm for the 131103 r t -"'[Mr. Durham 

Fifteenth (Coni*) j j r * " 

-10:00-h:00 Slide Show (Cent*) CNRll| j C T - ; Mr Ho^ti 

■ . ! I V v 

p: 00 l t : 00 Viluw , j i 

1:00 R: 00 J>:>eu!rtcnUy. ' f]m* Mining Kin * j‘ : i Vaa ioiu; Hacull^y 

*i=W tfcditetlwi , ( Quadrangle (North) Mr* Dunne . 

«"'iu wint of iucl.cmviifi WoaLIier, outdoor activities Le t i e held j t north side of 

rvH. - 1 ‘ ■—* 


Mm. Mining Tan* ; ; , Various faculty Mf; 1 

! i . ■ 

Quadrangle (North) Mr* Dunne. . 1 ■ *; 





I 


s 



\ 







t 




r 


be 

b7C 


VIETNAM MORATORIUM 
ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 
OCTOBER 15, 1969 


Advised that the enrollment at Meramec 


is 5,194. He also stated that attendance was near normal 
and that no Incidents were reported* The scheduled 
activities took place and participation was not heavy. 


support for October 


jdvised oh October 13, 1969, that faculty 
15th demonstrations was good, and that the 
Faculty Association of the Junior College District of St* Louis, 
(Junior College district encompasses the three schools 
mentioned above) had j>assed the following resolution at' its 
meeting on October ll t ‘ 1969: 

"Be it therefore resolved that the Faculty 
Association of the Junior College District of St* Louis, Missouri, 
endorses the Moratorium of October 15 and encourages -tie 
citizens of St* Louis, the students, faculties and staffs 
of the Junior CollegejDistric; to participate--each in hi^ 
way„in the Moratorium* 

"Be it further resolved that the Faculty Association 
of the junior College' District of St, Louis, Missouri 
respectfully but firmly urges the President of the United 
States to recognize the battleground for freedom and equality 
here in the United States and[ that as a result of this 
recognition he bring the war-Lwith our men and our dollars™back 
home by December, 1970,'* i 


University of Missouri at St. Louis (UMSL) 


On October 15, 1969 ,| 
following schedule of events ior UCEODBr 
Includes a statement of support from the Faculty Senate. 


piade available the 
15th at UMSL, It 





4* r ' ■ 











VIKWM tK'UA'l'OUUm ... a J '> w ^" 

M vt(V)”' 1T tObi; 15—lionAToiiiuii DAT “ 1 

,; ln . K^dty Senate o»d Central Council at (l.!,5.L. have endorsed 
j!t>i‘.tl.i ’)*)iim Jfcy activities on tide «c. FUrthcmorc, the Senate • *<*« 
twrt cveiyfaeulty member ha. the 'Wnl right" not to hold clnoeeo. Th 
„ 11c «m of this‘moratorium depends on ell out student-faculty support 
«« form of participation and attendance at the panels and, eepecia y, 

the Central Convocations - : 

ACTIVITIES FOR THE DAY 

Oil Tins HILL. !' ■ , 

0:30 Pro ft'.. pwreon, StoU j of the Her" 

"J^onomie Appecto of the V.ar" ^Ptrri£ino_300^TJH - 

"Effects of the war on our Society" Open panel disc. iui . . 

;J) 1 j,i r . Sabi l 100 ML STUDENT DEBATE 

ifj I p r . r.tem 206 EH OPEN DISCUSSION 

| | _Dr^ Eurne lOJ M_01EN DISCUSSIOH 

TlToo ^rofe."ladder,“DoyleT Ffiedlander 

^Fbreittn Policy Goals 11 j — --" " “* " “" 

" — "T Dr* Sargent 313 1*L OFEii DISC* on 

"CcnocientiouB Objection" 

u Jir* Clayton 10^ OPEN CLASS on 

\/ If "national 5 c 2 n 2 m £ i h - L a I - - 

12’QO ALC sponsors three speakers on 'The Black Han's View of Vietnam 
Central n» *® 

Speakers include Rabbi Robert Jacobs, Rev, Daniel kirk, mrvi 
Chairman of tho Slew Democratic Coalition 
^i30 r>in£-in end koetxy Readings j 

3:30 Peace March to Cemetnxy—Memorial Service t 

7:00 GE: USUAL PANEL ON "Vim NOV'7" 100 ML Dr. Gene Bums, Dr. War* Stern, 
r; r . Stephen Bant, Chairman of the McCarthy Campaign in Missouri 

A movie on Vietnam by David Schocnbrun Will be shown in the student Annex 

coraECTOKCWHoirr * mum. 

i-ldSn ris &?JS££2tiSmm ■ 


■ij* 


JWSSffl^ 


m f,oLtorium Day Steering Committee 
/ 



VIETNAM MORATORIUM 
ST, LOU'!it, MISSOURI }■ 
OCTOBER 15. 1969 


ft 


| advised th^t no incidents were reported 
in connection with any of the activities at UMSL; He , 
advised that faculty members had been ordered to hold class 
:is usual for the 9,450 students at the University. Crowds 
attending various activities varied from a few students 
at some lectures to approximately 1,000 persons for a 
series of lectures on "Black Man # s View of the Vietnam War" 
held at 12:30 P,M, 300 students took part in the peace - 
march to a nearby cemetary at 3:30 P.M, 


Saint Louis University 


On October 6, 1969?, ] I advised that activities 

at SLU would center around a 12:30 P.M. mass to be cels.^rated 
by | L ;. 

and a march following the mass from SLU to downtown 5t, 

Students planned to talk to the people in downtown St, Louis 
from 2:30 to 5:00 P.M. following the’(march. In addition to 
those students going downtown, speeches and lectures were 
scheduled on the campus throughout the day. 

I I advised that on October 15, 1969, about 

2,000 persons attended the mass. Source advised that few 
classes were cancelled by professors supporting the Moratorium, 
Source said that prior to October 15th supporters contended that 
75 professors had agreed not to hold class. The enrollment 
at SLU is 11,232* Sources advised that there were no incidents. 

, ft 

Webster Groves College (V?G) and Eden Seminary 

I 

9 

* These two schools are located across the street 
from each other and Moratorium plans were prepared largely 
by jjfcliit committees. /'■ 








(Title) ST « LqUljS METROPOLITAN ARE A 


(File No.) 

Letter and envelopes from St. Louis Metropolitan Area Citizens' 


Application for memberhip 

DiSnmM nf ft ^ ^ 


Pamphlet ''The Challenge to the South and How It Must Be Meet" 

Pamphlet llstrsnath Through Ilnlfcy" __ 

Congressional Committee report on Waht Happened Where Schools 
Were Integ r ated in Washington. D.C. 

Pamphlet' Second Putnam Letter Cuts Root of Integration Falla 
Pamphlet "A Jewish View on Segregation" 


Disposition 


SEARCHED 4..INDEXED 

SERIALIZED 

















FD-340 (RBV, 0.17*621 


b6 

hi 


Fife No. 


i_±2i£L ^ 


Date Received _9/29/64 (By mail) 


From. 


By- 


SA 


(NAME DP CONTRIBUTOR) 


IADDRE0& OF CONTRIBUTOR), 


ICITT AND STATE) 


(NAME OP SPECIAL AO&NTJ 


To Be Returned 


Yes □ 
No g) 


Description: 

Letter and envelopes from 
St, Louis Metropolitan Area 
Citizens* Council 




JOHN H. SUTHERLAND 
GRAVOIS STATION P. O. BOX C 
ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 63116 



ST. 



aid* * 

CONFIDENTIAL 


LOUIS METROPOLITAN AREA CITIZENS’ COUNCIL 

ORGANIZATION COMMITTEE 
ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI 

ADDRESS MAIL TO: 

John H. Sutherland 
Gravois Station 
P. O Box C 

St. Louis, Missouri 63116 


Dear Patriot: 

You would not be receiving this letter if there was not good reason 
to believe that you are a patriotic American, jealous of your own "civil 
rights”, and conscious of what has happened to many of the personal 
liberties which you previously took for granted. 


_A gr oup of lo cal citizens _ha_v..e..jqyietly been meeting, together to ex¬ 
plore the situation. All agree that we are deep in the throes of MINORITY 
RULE; that we "forgotten men” got that way by failing to heed the admonition 
on the Great Seal of Missouri: 


"UNITED WE STAND, DIVIDED WE FALL"; 

and that the best way to regain majority rule is to have one strong locally- 
autonomous organization--built along non-partisan lines and geared to make 
the local and national politicians listen to our combined voice. 

This is the plan of the Citizens' Councils of America; and it is 
proving its effectiveness in communities across the country - from Califronia 
to Maryland. 

On Saturday, October 10, there will be a meeting in the Hall of 
Electrical Workers, Local ^1, 5850 Elizabeth Avenue Cl block east of Hampton 
and 1 long block north of Southwest Avenue), starting at 8:00 p.m. At this 
meeting a ST. LOUIS METROPOLITAN AREA CITIZENS' COUNCIL - will be organized. 
Guest speaker will be Joseph McDowell Mitchell of Washington, D.C., Field 
Director for the Citizens 1 Councils of Maryland, Washington, and Virginia. 
Louis W. Hollis, Executive Director of the Citizens’ Councils of America, 
will be on hand to explain the structure and operating procedure of the 
Council program. 

Your presence at this meeting will be of great value in the launching 
of this organized effort to combat lawlessness and racial agitation, to 
prevent minority-group domination of political affairs, and to get the 
Federal Government’s nose out of our local and personal business. 

The meeting is not open to the general public . But you are welcome 
to bring members of your family. And if you have friends who share our 
concern, please write their names and addresses on the back of the coupon 
below, and return it within three days. Then bring them with you unless 
you hear from us to the contrary. 

John H. Sutherland Sincerely 

Temporary Chairman 

Mary G. Burns Organization Committee-- 

Temporary Secretary ST. LOUIS METROPOLITAN AREA CITIZENS' COUNCIL 


Detach and mail to: John H. Sutherland 

_ Gravois Sta ti on P. 0 . Box C 

St. Louis, Missouri" 63116 

CJ I will attend the Organization Meeting on Saturday, October 10, 1964, 
at 8:00 p.m. in the Hall of Electrical Workers, Local #1 in St. Louis. 

H I I will bring with me _friends whose names and addresses are listed 

on the back. 

n I will be unable to attend, but am interested in being a part of this 
organization. 

(Please NAME PHONE 

Print) CITY & 

ADDRESS_STATE _ 


ALL THAT IS NECESSARY FOR THE TRIUMPH OF EVIL IS THAT GOOD MEN DO NOTHING! 







F 0*340 (REV. B-17-62) 



Date Received 


To Be Returned 


Description! 










Yes No 


1; &T9 you pcjitfvoty dodf^ied,, os o 

. tfflatter of personal choice,, to the 
principle of tha social vapor at ion of 
. tffie races? 0 Q 

2. Do you believe that forced integra¬ 

tion and racial interbreeding threat¬ 
en the integrity of bath races, and 
endanger the very foundation of our 
Western civilization? 0 0 

3. Do you believe that either Commun¬ 
ist influences or economic pressure " 

groups are behind the campaign to 

fprco the white people of this country 
to amalgamate with the negro race? 0 0 

4. Do you believe that left-wing agi¬ 
tation groups ore inciting racial ten¬ 
sion and racial violence In the na¬ 
tion because they want Federal inter¬ 
vention by armed troops, thus estab¬ 
lishing a police state under martial 


bw? 


□ 

□ 

5 Do you believe in 

the rights of the 



Sovereign States to 

handle their own 



internal affairs? 


□ 

□ 


6. Do you believe in the principle of 
fpcaf seif-government, ond in the 

strengthening of local and state gov¬ 
ernments to protect citizens from Fed¬ 
eral meddling? , 

7. Do you realize that indifference, 
apathy, and the inclination of some 
to accept collectivism as "inevitable" 
. . , are our greatest enemies? 

B. Are you ready and willing to DO 
SOMETHING positive about this very 
serious and present problem? 

Will you join the Citizens' Council? 


□ □ 

□ □ 

□ □ 
□ □ 



^Cl Tj 



APPU£A¥!OW TO® MSMSfftSMIlF 

_CITIZiMS' COUNOL 

_. 


N»mt 


.Home Phone. 


A eldres*- 


Buiineis Phortii. 


Cil* 


Business 


pit? file indiult ih* Co until Committee 
an which yn* with •»*•; 

□ Membership ind Finartce 

□ Public Affairs 

□ Information and Education 

G .. .^. 


Monthly Mcmhisrihip Dues 
P Minimum $2 00 

O PjtucipjTino S 5 00 

□ CcintribjtJng JJQ.QO 


fined 


Budgeted Diilr ibiUian 0t Dun 

Local Council use 50% 

Subscription. fo The C it is on and 

exigent' Council Fa rum 20% 

State A»OCi*tiao 20% 

Ciiitenj' Councils of America to 

orfjAfiiie new Citizen*' Council* 10% 


DRAFT AUTHORIZATION 


i 

? 


Date _ „ H 19 

To; __ 

(Name *f tank) 


■ 

) 

f 

1 


f 

) 


(City) (Shit.) 

Unlit Further notice you are hereby authorized and directed to charge 

my (our) account in your Bonk drafts drawn fey the__ _ ._ 

Citizens' Council o!_ _ __ 

on rhe_day of each month In the amount ol 5 _— 

Signed: ____ _____ 

nip 


Sponst 


Account No, 




FD*840 (REV. S-17-flai 


File No. 


IS7-j7> - J/±3 


Date Received. 


FromI 






djdiL 

iad6rbss op eoNTiiwuroffl 


teiTY AND TATE I 



To Be Returned 


Yes □ 
No Q" 


Description! 

(£> PhtifM&T " /Nr/Fq/tQ-fi OA/ 

**'/) s */fs m^ ✓yn*£ ? 



A Distinguished Judge Analyzes The Dubious 

Background Of The Fourteenth Amendment 

'Integration Amendment' Was 
Never Legally Adopted! 

By M. M/ McGowan 

Circuit Judge, 7th District of Mississippi 

Almost a hundred years ago, the Fourteenth Amendment was placed 
in the Constitution, The word “placed" in the Constitution is used emphati¬ 
cally, because the amendment was never legally submitted and never legally 
adopted. It was placed in the Constitution by armed troops and at the point 
of a bayonet. 

Today, the troops are back again—attempting to enforce newly con¬ 
ceived court orders, hinged upon the amendment and piously trumpeted 
as the "law of the land.” 

The ghosts of Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner are again stalk¬ 
ing the land. The Fourteenth Amendment was largely the handiwork of 
those two vengeful and bitter old men. They were consumed with a re¬ 
morseless desire to further punish and debase the defeated enemy. Stevens 
was a Congressman from the Gettysburg area of Pennsylvania, and Sumner 
was Senator from Massachusetts. Stevens was a sick and dying old man, 
driven and sustained by a passionate desire to bring about the adoption 
of the amendment and the impeachment of President Johnson. 

Feelings had long been tense, and several years before the war broke 
out, a fiery young Congressman from South Carolina entered the Senate 
chamber and caned and beat Senator Sumner almost to death on the Senate 
floor. 

During the early days of 1866, the seats of the senators and House 
members from ten Southern states were empty, the Southern members 
having been met at the door and turned away. Lincoln, the South’s only 
hope for succor, lay dead of the assassin’s bullet. Out of such turbulance 
the Fourteenth was born, and started its doubtful journey toward a berth 
in the Constitution, 

In order to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the conditions 
out of which the amendment grew, it is first necessary to examine the 
contentions of the conflicting parties that carried them into the Civil War 
and emerged with them therefrom. 

© by The Council, tnc , All rights reserved. 

REPRINTED FROM THE CITIZEN- 

OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE CITIZENS’ COUNCILS OF AMERICA 


It was the contention of the Southern States that they had the legal 
and inherent right to secede from the Union; the North said they did not. 
It is said that the question of States’ Rights was settled by the arbitrament 
of the sword. Such is. not true. The power to secede was all that was 
settled by the War. The argument as to the right to secede went on long 
after the War under the tutelage of Alexander H. Stephens of Georgia, 
until it became, with the changing times, a mere academic vestige of the 
tragic era that gave it birth. 

Now it was the contention of the North that the Southern, states did 
not secede, that they never left the Union. Therefore, when the War was 
over, the only status they could assume was the status quo. That is, they 
were still states of the Union, and entitled to the rights, privileges and 
obligations thereof, If they were not, then the North was guilty of the 
most flagrant aggressive war in history. 

So this is the stage as it was set when the amendment was started on 
its journey. The amendment was offered under the provisions of Article V 
of the Constitution; that is, the amendment was proposed by Congress, 
which required the votes of two thirds of the members for submission, 
and the votes of three fourths of the states after submission, before ratifica¬ 
tion could be had. 

Therefore, in order to get the resolution of submission through the 
Congress, it became necessary to bar Southern states from their seats, else 
the resolution could not have passed. 

There were only thirty-seven states in the Union at the time, and 
with California, Kentucky, Maryland and Delaware joining the ten Southern 
states in opposition, passage in the Congress was impossible. The barring 
of the ten Southern states was the first of the grossly illegal acts connected 
with the processes whereby it was sought to have the amendment adopted. 
The Congress thus became a rump assembly, 

It must be remembered that at this time—1866 and early 1867—while 
the Southern members had been driven from Congress, the various state 
legislatures had not been molested, and were still intact. So was civil 
government in the said states intact at that time. 

It should be remembered also at this juncture that there were three 
of these amendments that crowded closely upon the heels of the sur¬ 
render. They were the Thirteenth, Fourteenth and the Fifteenth Amend¬ 
ments. The Thirteenth and Fifteenth Amendments were easily and 
promptly adopted, without dissent; all of the legislatures of the Southern 
states, competent to participate, voted therefor. One authority claims 
the votes of these states insured the passage of the Thirteenth. The Thir¬ 
teenth merely abolished slavery, and the Fifteenth provided suffrage 
should not be denied on account of race or previous condition of servitude. 

The Fourteenth Amendment was roundly defeated, some Northern 
states voting against it. Only Tennessee in the South voted for it. Ten 
Southern states rejected it They were: Virginia, North Carolina, South 
Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas and 
Texas, 




The Republican rump Congress was infuriated. Under the prodding 
of Stevens, Sumner anti others, they set in motion the most incredible 
series of events any nation in the English world ever witnessed. 

On March 2, 1867, they rammed through the rump Congress the 
Reconstruction Act. (14 Stat. 428, Chap. 153.) 

It destroyed and abolished civil government in the ten Southern states 
above mentioned. 

It divided the said ten Southern states into five military districts, with 
a general of the rank of brigadier general or higher in each district. The 
Army invaded the South, abolished all semblance of civil government and 
set up military rule. Governor Clark of Mississippi, infirm and crippled, 
had been dragged from the mansion and sent to a military prison in Georgia 
in 1865. Governor and Mrs. Humphreys were ejected from the same man¬ 
sion by negro troops who moved in after passage of the Reconstruction Act. 

It disenfranchised all voters or qualified electors, and directed the Army 
to set up a registration of its own. This was done by registering only 
negroes, carpetbaggers and scalawags, 

It provided that military rule should continue in all of the states, not 
only until a particular state had adopted the Fourteeth Amendment, but 
that it should continue in all of the states until the amendment was ratified 
in a sufficient number of states to insure its adoption. 

Legislatures were herded together in the various states, consisting in 
all cases of ignorant and illiterate negroes under the domination of carpet¬ 
bag adventurers and camp followers who had drifted after the Army when 
it moved southward. 

The amendment was adopted and in 1868, the Secretary of State rather 
doubtfully issued a proclamation announcing its adoption and insertion 
into the Constitution. 

The Army remained for years, in some states longer than others. Three 
states—Louisiana, Florida and South Carolina—never got rid of it until 
they traded it out of their states by giving their electoral votes to Republi¬ 
can Hayes, instead of Tilden, the Democrat, in 1876. 

The states did not take it lying down, although there was little they 
could do. Some of them did not wait to attack the amendment, but at¬ 
tacked the validity of the Reconstruction Act itself. Their suits got no¬ 
where. The courts simply refused to rule one way or the other. Mississippi 
was one of those bringing such a suit. 

In an article published in the Louisiana Law Journal, in 1953, entitled 
“The Dubious Origin Of The Fourteenth Amendment," Walter J. Suthon, 
Jr., of the New Orleans bar, quotes Senator Doolittle of Wisconsin, a 
Northerner and conservative Republican, as stating upon the floor of the 
Senate: 

“My friend has said what has been said all around us, what is said 
every day; the people of the South have rejected the constitutional amend- 









ment, and therefore we will march upon them and force them to accept it 
at the point of the bayonet, and establish military power over them until 
they do adopt it." 

Mr. Suthon also quotes the case of Mississippi vs, Johnson (4 Wall, 
475), an injunction suit brought by the State of Mississippi against Presi¬ 
dent Andrew Johnson and General Ord, military, commander of Missis¬ 
sippi, seeking to enjoin the enforcement of the Act. The Supreme Court 
declined jurisdiction for the reason that it might bring about the impeach¬ 
ment of the President if he attempted to enforce such an injunction! 

Perhaps the rawest action of the Congress in the entire matter oc¬ 
curred in another case from Mississippi. That was Ex Parte McCardle, 
described briefly in Confederate Military History, Vol, 12. Research dis¬ 
closes that this case was heard by the Supreme Court on its merits on 
March 9, 1868. Before the court could act on the appeal the Congress 
hastily passed an act on March 27, 1868 (15 Stat. 44, Chap . 39), striking 
down the right of appeal from the circuit court to the Supreme Court, 
provided for in a general judiciary act of February 5, 1867 (14 Stat. 386, 
Chap, 29). The court bowed to the Congress’ mandate and dismissed the 
case. The case, a habeas corpus proceeding, would have drawn the entire 
act within the purview of the court’s interpretation. 

Various suits were later brought seeking to have the amendment itself 
declared void. The courts never passed on any of them, one way or the 
other. 

At this juncture one might ask why all the lengthy exposure of the 
sordid origin of the amendment? What does it have to do with the con¬ 
duct of national affairs today? 

The answer is that in recent years for the first time, in almost a cen¬ 
tury of its existence, the Fourteenth Amendment has been seized upon by 
big government and the bureaucratic socializers to intrude into the affairs 
of the states and of the people, and set up a virtual socialist dictatorship. 

The instrumentality they have employed to accomplish this nefarious 
purpose is the Federal judiciary. Although Congress has cravenly handed 
over most of its constitutional powers to a grasping executive, still it has 
never yielded on the school issue and has never, even if it could, passed 
any law giving the national government any right to intermeddle in the 
education and nurture of our youth. 

So, frustrated in their effort to gain sanction from the only lawmaking 
body in the land, the socializers turned to the courts. Eager to cover their 
illegal acts with the cloak of legal respectability, they began the process 
of wearing down the courts. Aided by the encroachment of time and the 
sole right of appointment and replacement, they finally, to the shame and 
disgrace of the nation, had their way. The Fourteenth Amendment was 
the big lever they employed. 

Thomas Jefferson said when the national government was set up, that 
the germ of dissolution of the Republic was implanted in the Federal Judi- 



ciary, with its lifetime politically appointed judges. One of his bio¬ 
graphers states that Jefferson’s opposition to this part of the Constitution, 
along with other features involving Federal powers, was so great that he 
was sent out of the country as envoy to France while the Constitption was 
being debated and adopted. 

The question naturally arises as to why, after almost one hundred 
and sixty years of reasonable harmonious co-existence between the stronger, 
the judiciary of the Federal government, and the weaker, the states and 
their judiciaries, should the flood gates so suddenly open, and the rights 
of the states be so eagerly snatched away? 

Why the almost frenzied and inordinate haste to humiliate, embarrass 
and debase the highest officers of the states; to strike down with impunity 
acts solemnly passed by the state legislatures; to dash off hasty decrees, 
arrogantly seizing the constitutional power to apportion state legislatures; 
to blanket large areas of the earth with dreadful injunctions, calculated to 
terrify and cow the people, deprive them of jury trials, and make them 
cringe before tyrannical power? 

The answer is simple. The weaker can only exist side by side with 
the stronger, when their rights are evenly equated, by a refined for¬ 
bearance and an ennobling restraint on the part of the stronger. Thus it 
was that for so many years, relative harmony prevailed. But in this 
modem age forbearance has disappeared from the field, and there is no 
restraint, ennobling or otherwise. 

In recent years the long-dormant doctrine of Interposition has begun 
to stir itself. The revival of the doctrine follows closely the action of the 
Federal courts, relying partly on psychology and partly upon the Four¬ 
teenth in legislating the Federal government into the field of public educa¬ 
tion. 

The doctrine means that the state interposes its sovereignty between 
the Federal government and itself and its people in cases where there is 
a “palpable” usurpation of power on the part of the Federal government, 
as the rights of the parties are defined in the “compact,'' as Jefferson 
called the Constitution. 

Most of the Southern states bestirred themselves after the school deci¬ 
sion of 1954, and passed resolutions of Interposition. At that time it had 
been almost exactly a hundred years since the doctrine had been invoked 
in a general and significant contest, and that was when the people of 
Wisconsin tore down a jail and freed a slave, and the legislature of that 
state nullified both the Fugitive Slave Act of Congress and the Dred 
Scott decision of the Supreme Court. 

It was seventy years before the Fourteenth Amendment found its way 
into the Constitution, when Jefferson, writing sub rosa in the Kentucky 
Resolution of Interposition of 1797 against the Alien and Sedition laws, 
ask ^d, rather plaintively, “Who will be the judge of the infraction?" mean¬ 
ing, of course, that when the Federal government encroaches upon the 



rights of the states, in "palpable” violation of the terms of the “compact,” 
who will judge between them? 

Actually, Jefferson could not answer his own question. However, the 
modern Federal jurist, not troubled with the logical tortures that beset 
the Sage of Monticello, simply issues his dictum, as superficial as it is 
preemptory: “There isn’t any such thing.” But it will not satisfy a free 
people who love liberty, and will never abandon its creeds until truth, 
crushed to the earth, arises again. 

The beneficiaries of the unlawful intrusion of the Federal courts into 
the affairs and rights of the states maintain a ceaseless clamor about their 
ever-present “court order” being the “law of the Land.” No court decision 
is “the law of the land.” Article I, Sec. 2, of the Constitution defines what 
is the “law of the land": “This Constitution, and the laws of the United 
States which shall be made in pursuance thereof and all Treaties made, or 
which shall be made under the authority of the United States , shall be the 
supreme law of the land, , . 

Those who thus contend that the founders of the Republic left it to 
a man in a black robe to enact laws throughout the future ages, certainly 
have a most distorted idea of the ; purpose and intents of the patriots who 
set up our form of government. To contend that such a decision is the 
law of the land and must be obeyed is to say that an inalienable right, 
once usurped, ceases to exist. This is the shallowest form of sophistry. 

Resistance, however, is to be: abhorred if it represents only the dis¬ 
pleasure of the individual or a group of individuals. Only in cases where, 
as Jefferson says, there is a “palpable” usurpation of power, involving a 
grave constitutional question, and affecting dangerously the life, liberty 
and freedom of the people, is such action justified. 

No court decision is the “law of the land.” No court decision is the 
law of the case if based upon an amendment, such as the Fourteenth, 
which was illegally placed in the Constitution. 

Lastly, a brief analysis cf the Fourteenth Amendment is in order. 
Just what does it provide? The Fourteenth Amendment, as it appears in 
the Constitution today, is one of the longest of the amendments. It con¬ 
sists of five sections. 

Section 1 defines for the first time a citizen of the United States, and 
provides he shall be a citizen of the state wherein he resides; the due pro¬ 
cess clause of the Fifth Amendment is restated, and the other provisions 
of the section with reference to abridging privileges and immunities of 
citizens of the United States, and guaranteeing equal protection of the 
laws, are framed in such a way as to be prohibitions against the states, 
solely. 

Significantly enough, there is no prohibition whatsoever against the 
Federal government usurping power not belonging to it, or indulging in 
oppressive acts against its citizens. In this respect it differs from the ten 
amendments in the Bill of Rights. 


This little-noticed feature is perhaps the most dangerous and deadly 
attribute of the disputed amendment. 

Section 2 provides that a state's representation shall be reduced in 
proportion to the number of qualified voters who are not allowed to par¬ 
ticipate in elections. No action has ever been taken on it. 

Section 3, in effect, bars from office, either state or Federal, any 
person who, as an official of any kind, had previously taken an oath 
of office, and later participated in the “rebellion.” Small wonder our Con¬ 
federate ancestors balked at this one! This section has long since become 
functus. 

Section 4 prohibits the payments, either by the states or the Federal 
government, of the debts incurred hy the Confederacy. 

Section 5 is significant in that it is the enabling clause, which pro¬ 
vides that the Congress shall have power to enforce the provisions of the 
amendment by appropriate legislation."' Congress has never passed any 
such law, at least as to any distinguishable or significant feature of the 
entire amendment. The amendment is thus not self-executing, and the 
court has no right to undertake to legislate itself into the affairs of the 
states, which were settled with the forming of the Republic. 

It might be said that the Fourteenth Amendment has become a part 
of the Constitution by long accepted usages. It is doubtful a basic con¬ 
stitutional provision could in such manner gain delayed legality, but if it 
should, it is certainly true that the usages, interpretations and applications 
whereby the amendment gained legality would prescribe and fix with 
absolute certainty its field of operation, It would be ridiculous to say that 
each century a new set of judges could' create out of it an N entirely new 
organ of law. The judges then would not only be legislating, but of their 
own motion amending the Constitution.: 

Furthermore, it is well established that the decisions of the Supreme 
Court that follow in due course interpreting an amendment to the Consti¬ 
tution reasonably limit and fix the scope of its operation. The decisions 
before and after the turn of the century interpreting the Fourteenth 
firmly establish the separate but equal doctrine. One of the leading cases 
is Plessy vs. Ferguson, handed down in the 1890’s. 

The people have a right to know that some day the basic law will 
be settled, and free from the tinkering hand of judges yet unborn. 

Our Constitution is but an effort to set down in abridged form the 
basic principles of the law of property and individual freedom that had 
been wrought out of centuries of travail.by our ancestors in England and 
America. It is the most inartificial document ever drafted by the hand of 
man. Its very simplicity is astounding. Its brevity attests the fact that its 
founders never dreamed that a society would some day arise so devilish 
as to seek its destruction and so ingenious as to subvert its plain terms by 
construction. 

As long as usurpation of power is practiced, free men, who want to 
be free, will resist it! 




Literature You Should Know About! 

The George Report— "The Biology Of The Race Problem" by Dr. W. C, George, 
A scientific study proving that racial differences do exist! Single copy 50 cents, 
10 for $3.50, 

The Race Problem Moves North —An address by W. J. Simmons, editor of THE 
CITIZEN, to students at Carleton College, Northfield, Minn. Single copy 25 cents, 
6 for $ 1. 

Ole Miss And The Constitution —An address by Richard D. Morphew, managing 
editor of THE CITIZEN, to a student assembly at the California Institute of 
Technology, Pasadena, Calif. Single copy 25 cents, 6 for $1, 

Oxford: A Warning For Americans— Details of the Federal invasion of Ole Miss 
recounted by Mississippi State Junior Chamber of Commerce. 

Operation Ole Miss— An attorney's suggestion for dealing with the armed occupa¬ 
tion of the campus. 10 copies of each for $ I. 

Is The Supreme Court Pro-Communist? —An analysis of the record of each Supreme 
Court justice by Senator James 0. Eastland of Mississippi, Chairman of the Senate 
Judiciary Committee. Single copy 50 cents, 10 for $4, 

Order by title, please! Send your order, with remittance, to THE CITIZEN, Plaza 
Building, Jackson, Mississippi. 


I : 


Additional copies of this reprint are available. Order by title from The Citizens’ Council, 
Plaza Building, Jackson, Mississippi. Single copy 25?!, 6 for $1, 





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The Challenge To The South 
And How It Must Be Met 

An address by L. H. Perez, District Attorney of St. Bernard and 
Plaquemines Parishes, Louisiana, as featured speaker at 
. a leadership meeting at the Edgewater Gulf Hotel near 
. Biloxi, Miss., July 21, in which he presented the back* 
ground to the problems confronting the South posed by the 
National Democratic platform adopted at the Los Angeles 
Convention, and offered a solution to the problems which 
rests in the hands of the people, He cautioned the people 
that without organization there will be disunity and Final 
surrender to the Communists. 

He stressed the need for white solidarity, He likened the 
Democratic platform to the communist manifesto that 
would surrender our national sovereignty, and explained 
how the people of the South could elect independent 
electors, without a third party which could restore the 
balance of power to the South by proving the South has the 
strongest bloc of presidential electoral votes. 


To understand what is happening here and elsewhere in this 
country in the racial struggle, we must go back to the Black Mon¬ 
day decision of the United States Supreme Court. 

That decision marked the pro-communist penetration of the 
highest court in the land. 

/ That decision was a treasonable adoption by the U. S. Supreme 
Court of the attack made by the Carnegie Foundation of Alger Hiss 
fame against the constitutional convention presided over by George 
Washington, who previous to the days of Communist infiltration in 
Washington, was reverently referred to as the Father of our country; 
and of James Madison who was called the father of the Constitution 
in our country's early history, and of Thomas Jefferson who was 
recognized as the chief architect of the Declaration of Inde¬ 
pendence. 

It was these great founding forefathers and other patriotic 
leaders to whom all Americans owe our great heritage of liberty and 
freedom, that a hybrid new-deal, fair-deal, modern Republican 
United States Supreme Court, (the members of which are not fit to 
shine the boots of our great patriotic forefathers) repudiated in the 
Black Monday decision. They adopted pro-communist writings on 
sociology exclusively as authority for their decision, instead of 
provisions of the United States Constitution as interpreted by the 
same and other courts for over a hundred years. 

1 
















At the same time the court affirmed statements from the Carnegie' 
Myrdal “American Dilemma”, that 1. “the Constitutional Conven¬ 
tion was oearly a plot against the common people.” 2. “The Con¬ 
stitution is in many respects impractical and ill-suited for modern 
conditions.” 3. “American liberty was dangerous to equality.” 

Not only did every member of the court who supported the in¬ 
famous Black Monday decision which attempted to inflict upon a 
proud freedom-loving people the curse of Communistic regimentation 
in direct violation of their oaths to support the constitution* but 
these nine pitiful, treasonable men chided the American people and 
other officials for paying due respect to the constitution when the 
court held along with Myrdal, and Alger Hiss, and the Carnegie 
Foundation that, and I quote 

“The worship of the Constitution also is a most flagrant viola¬ 
tion of the American creed” (which Myrdal created in his bid for 

sod-racial equality as the amalgamator of races.)” 

Equality Makes All Men Sluggards 

Alexander Hamilton speaking at the Constitutional convention 
in Philadelphia said: 

“Inequality will exist as long as liberty exists. It unavoidably 
results from that very liberty itself,” 

Every mind assented. 

It is inequality that gives enlargement to intellect energy, virtue, 
love and wealth. Equality of intellect stabilizes mediocrity. 
Equality of wealth makes every man poor. Equality of energy 
renders all men sluggards. Equality of virtue suspends all men 
without the gates of heaven. Equality of love would stultify every 
manly passion, destroy every family altar and mong?elize the 
races of men. 

In his great work on Civil Liberty and Self-Government (1880) 
at page 334, Francis Lieber said: “Equality absolutely carried out 
leads to communism,” 

“Communism is but another name for equality in slavery.” 

When the Supreme Court junked the Anglo-Saxon concept of 
equal protection under the law, for sociracial equality, or social 
equality under the Constitution, it placed the U. S. Constitution in 
the same category with the Constitutions which contain^ - the 
concept of social equality, such as Latvia, Estonia, (both Russian 
Satelites), the Mongol Peoples Republic, The Ukranian SSR and 
the USSR, (Russia). 

So, we have been taken in the Russian orbit by infiltration from 
within. 

It would have beer* far better if the court had followed its own 
decision two years before,'that: 

“It is not within our competence to confirm or deny claims of 


2 



social' scientists as to the dependence of the individual on the 
‘ position of his racial or religious group in the community.” 

Pro-Communist Evidence Basis of Ruling 

Where did the court get these so-called “modern authorities”? 

They had not- been offered or introduced in evidence. Some of 
them made their first appearance in a brief filed by the pro*Com- 
munist dominated NAACP, the American Jewish Congress and 
and others in the secret chambers of the judges. 

Such- "modern authorities” could not have been admitted in 
evidence if tendered, because their content was no more than 1 
hearsay, fiction and gossip. . - 

The very use of such authority as evidence, without opportunity 
to examine, explain or rebut was held to a denial of "due process 
of law” in other cases by the very court which used it to reject 
jurisprudence and to amend the Constitution in 1954. 

The same court, through Justices Brandeis, Cardozo and Holmes 
had held that nothing can be treated as evidence which has not 
been introduced as such, and that to decide a case on any evidence 
not of record constituted a denial of the fundamentals of a trial, 
and such would not be the fair hearing essential to due process, 
but instead would be condemnation without trial. . 

Law of Land Propaganda 

That decision, spawned in the Communistic conspiracy, and the 
treasonable violation of our Constitution by the nine men cm that 
Court, was followed by a general avalanche of propaganda to brain¬ 
wash the American people into accepting the Black Monday decision 
as an interpretation by the United States Supreme Court of a pro¬ 
vision of the Constitution, (which it was not), - and as the supreme 
law of the land. 

That decision, based upon direct repudiation of the Constitution 
and its framers was nothing more nor less than a fellow traveller 
blank check to the pro-Communist dominated NAACP to go into any 
and all of the Federal courts of the land and secure bogus Com¬ 
munistic decrees for forced racial integration, regimentation, and- 
the ultimate amalgamation of the American people, to our certain 
destruction and, in the end, the surrender to th*e worldwide Com¬ 
munist conspiracy. 

Every effort has been made to have the Congress of the United 
States legislate that treasonable action of the U. S. Supreme Court 
into law and may I tell you, my friends, that if it were not for such 
courageous, and patriotic men such as Mississippi's senior senator, 
James Eastland, and the outstanding cooperative efforts of 
other great southerners in Congress such as Senators Strom Thur¬ 
man, Sam Irvin, 01 in Johnston, Harry Byrd, and a few others, to 
whom we might give honorable mention, bills introduced by Hubert 

3 








Humphrey, Lehman, Javits, Morse, Emanuel Celler, and other fellow 
Travellers, would long since have been included in the Federal 
statutes to plague each and every one of us into the Communist 
way of life. 

What, may we ask, is the motive or reason behind this almost in- 
sane, vicious drive for racial integration? 

We know that it started with the Communist manifesto and the 
Stalin orders to foment racial turmoil and strife — yes, and a 
revolution in the black belt of the United States so that the Stalin 
Russian government would recognize the black belt as an indepen¬ 
dent negro state within our midst. 

Bbit, failing in that, Stalin's politburo decided upon a plan of in¬ 
filtration in America. 

Conspiracy To Destroy America 
That plan has succeeded beyond their fondest hopes. The 
Communist plan for a collectivist state and tyrannical socialism 
has been adopted in this country by ambitious national politicos, 
and every so-called loyalist lends himself to the Communist 
conspiracy to socialize, to regiment, to create turmoil and con¬ 
fusion, to destroy the right of self-government and constitutional 
guarantees of liberty and freedom of choice in our daily lives. 

Demo Platform Denies Rights of Man 
N If you want a real Communist indoctrination course, read the 
Democratic platform labelled "The Rights of Man" adopted at the 
D emocratic N ational Convention in Los Angeles a few days ago. 
That platform promises to take care of and to provide for everybody 
from the cradle to the grave, not only here in this country, but 
throughout the so-called free world including the neutralist nations 
of Asia, Africa and lastly Latin America. 

While that platform proclaims against the evils of Communism 
they slyly say to the rulers of the Communist world, and I quote - 
"We recognize and welcome the irresistible momentum of the 
world revolution and shall identify the American policy with 
its values and objectives. 

"We confidently accept your challenge to competition in every 
field of human effort." 

That's the kind of double talk you will find throughout this 
Democratic platform. 

The platform goes all-out for strengthening the United Nations 
to strengthen the world court and the establishment of world law; 
to promote the world's economic and social development, and to 
top it all, this so-called democratic platform advocates absolute 
adherence to the world court and the outright repeal of the Connally- 
Vandecburg amendment to the United Nations charter by which the 
sovereignty of the United States as a nation was preserved against 
international meddling in our domestic affairs. 


i; 





To surrender our national sovereignty to a world court is to 
surrender to world Communism. 

Platform Supporters Are Traitors 

The authors of that traitorous plank and those who support it 
can only be looked upon as traitors to their country. We know to 
what excesses the United States Supreme Court has indulged in 
against the States by usurpation of ungranted powers. 

Can we expect less usurpation from a conglomerate world court 
if our national sovereignty were surrendered to it and the United 
States then would he subjected to harassment of all types of 
litigation which the evil genius of Communism could concoct 
against us for world propaganda and other self-serving purposes? 

There are other evidences of surrendering to the Communist 
conspiracy iri the Democratic platform. One is the promise to revive 
the so-called "Full Employment” project represented by a former 
Democratic administration bill which simply provided that if the 
government wasn't satisfied that industry was giving enough em¬ 
ployment in the community, why the government would simply 
sieze the plant or the farms, pay the owners off in script or bonds 
and load the payrolls for “Full employment.” 

Yet, we hear howls of anger against Fidel Castro! 

Another platform plank is to revive the campaign for FEPC, — 
to set up a so-called “Fair Employment Practices Commission,” 
supposedly to see to it that all the negroes and the erstwhile 
chosen people would get top priority jobs in industry and business 
throughout the land. 

FEPC Means Government Control of all Jobs 
in Privote Industry 

But we know that the real purpose of an FEPC is government 
control and politicalization of the 70 million or more jobs in 
private industry and agriculture which, as sure as destiny, would 
lead to a one-party system in this country, — as in Russia. 

The Hubert Humphreys, Emanuel Celler, the Lehmans, Javits, 
the Morses and other fellow travellers who advocate this FEPC 
government control of all jobs in private industry, know what they 
are about. 

Did any of you hear their flannel mouths shouting for an FEPC 
law under a Republican ftesident? NO. They want an FEPC under 
a Democratic President to perpetuate their pro-Communist domina¬ 
tion of the United States and to complete the destruction of the 
American system of free enterprise and our liberty and freedom as 
American citizens. 

Do you need more proof of this, — then look to Article IV of the 
Democratic platform which proposes to have Congress enact laws 


S 







and to use the full powers of the federal government to prohibit 
“discrimination” in voting (including the elimination of literacy 
tests), in education, (including the integration of every school 
district in the country by 1963), in the administration of justice, 
in housing, in employment, in all public facilities, to make the 
“Civil Rights” Commission permanent, and to assure equal access 
to all Americans regardless of race, creed or color to all areas of 
community life, - meaning interracial marriage in all States of the 
Union under federal law, as advocated by the N.A.A.C.P. 

The Los Angeles Convention Democratic platform embodies 
everything advocated by the 1928 platform for the Communist 
Party of America with regard to the negro masses in the United 
States. Its official organ stated that, “The negro question in 
America must be treated in its relation to the liberation struggle of 
the proletariat against American imperialism. The struggle against 
white oppression of the negro masses is a part of the proletarian 
revolution in America against Capitalism." 

They proceed to tear up what’s left of the Constitution, after 
what the United States Supreme Court did to it, and they propose to 
protect these “rights” as interpreted by the Supreme Court by 
making it the duty of the President to see that these rights are 
respected and the Constitution and laws as interpreted by the 
Supreme Court are faithfully executed. 

Little Rock Incident Example of "Duty of President" 

And what is meant by the “duty of the Resident?" That is a 
matter of record in the infamous Little Rock incident. 

The platform pledges that the Attorney General of the United 
States hereafter will bring all suits necessary against the state and 
local registration election and school officials in Federal courts, 
so that the NAACP will be spared this trouble and expense. 

And on top of all that, the Democratic platform proposes to 
railroad these new so-called Civil Right laws through Congress by 
repealing the right of unlimited debate in the Senate and enforce a 
gag rule and also to deprive the House - Rules Committee of Us 
authority to process legislation for action on the floor of the 
House of Congress. 

Just what does all this spell out when analyzed? Most of these 
suggestions have been introduced by pro-Communist and fellow 
travellers in Congress. They are not new. 

Federal Control of Voter Registration and Local Elections 

Under the Civil Rights Commission authority, which is to be 
made permanent, the Federal government practically takes Over the 
right of voter registration and the control of all state and local 
elections to the precinct level with the threat ever present of 


6 




Federal court injunctions and federal penalty for its violation. So 
we are to have federal court dominated elections.. 

State Law Enforcement Would Be Destroyed 

Next, the proposition against so-called discrimination in the 
administration of justice has been included in omnibus Civil Rights 
bills introduced in Congress by Celler, Javits, Humphrey and others 
of their ilk and what do they mean by discrimination in the ad¬ 
ministration of justice? 

They would place heavy penalties against all those who have 
to do with state law enforcement against criminals, if they were 
negroes, and if the Federal courts disagreed with them. 

We know what the U. S. Supreme Court does invariably in freeing 
negro degenerates who rape white women. 

But, in such a case under the platform’s proposal for a law 
against discrimination in the administration of justice, the sheriff 

or his deputies, who made the arrest, the jailor, the prosecuting 
attorney, the trial judge, and the members of the jury could be held 
under such a federal law at any time a federal court set aside a 
guilty yerdict of a negro under state law under technicality of 
“lack of due process of law under the 14th Amendment.” 

By that suggestion the Democratic platform would destroy state 
law enforcement against all negroes. The law of the jungle would 
prevail. Every man would be on his own. His only protection would 
be his shot gun. 

Under the provisions injecting the U. S, Attorney General in 
every type of harassing litigation against state and local officials 
in this overall plan of Communist regimentation and racial amalgama¬ 
tion, every vestige and hope of peace and security of the white 
American citizen would be destroyed and he and his loved ones 
would be left unprotected against the rapacious assaults of the 
negroes in our midst. 

To summarize this outrageous document called the Democratic 
platform, we might well call it a Communist indoctrination course, - 
or more appropriate still, it might well be called a Congolese Con¬ 
stitution to legalize assault and violence by the blacks against the 
whites, backed up by the coercive power of the Federal government 
to destroy the peace and security and the liberties and freedom of 
our people. 

This platform would make a myth of our basic American heritage 
of freedom of choice. 

Democratic Platform Repudiates Jefferson 

This Democratic platform, which would destroy every vestige of 
States Rights and liberty and freedom of our people, lies when it 


7 



says that it is based upon principles advocated by Thomas Jeffer- 
son. This is no longer the party of Jefferson. It has been captured 
by false leaders who bear official citations of numerous Communist 
front and subversive affiliations. 

Jefferson, in his autobiography, states his true principle of 
states rights. Let me quote him: 

“It is not by the consolidation, or concentration of powers, 
but by their distribution, that good government is effected. 

“Were not this great country already divided into states, that 
division must be made, that each might do for itself what con¬ 
cerns itself directly, and what it can so much better do than a 
distant authority. 

“Every state again is divided into counties, each to take care 
of what lies within it’s local bounds; each county again into 
townships or wards, to manage minuter details. 

“It is by this partition of cares, descending in graduation 
from general to particular, that the mass of human affairs may be 
best managed for the good and prosperity of all. 

“The concept of Government expressed in the phrase of the 
Declaration of Independence, 'Deriving their just powers from 
the consent of the governed*, can find its full realization only 
in the States themselves, because it is only through the States 
that Government comes sufficiently close to the people to 
enable them to translate their consent into law. The consent of 
the governed, as the chief foundation stone of self-government, 
is without substance or significance unless it serves first the 
cause and right of the people to be secure in the control of their 
local affairs. 

“National self-government could not long endure except upon 
the foundation of local self-government. This is the heart and 
soul of the whole doctrine of States' Rights. It sustains and 
supports and keeps alive the whole fabric of the Nation’s 
political life." 

So you see how the democratic platform repudiates every 
Jeffersonian principle. 

My friends, that Democratic platform is not based upon any 
provision of the United States Constitution with regard to the right 
of equal protection of the laws or against the denial of the right to 
vote on account of race, color or previous condition of servitude, 
under state voter qualification laws. 

Platform Taken From Russian Constitution 
Those so-called Civil Rights planks of that platform come under 
Article 123 of the Russian Constitution which provides that — 

“Equality of rights of citizens of the U.S.S.R., irrespective of 
their nationality or race, in all spheres of economics, govern - 

8 





meat, cultural, political and other public activity, is an in¬ 
defeasible law.” 

and under Article 21 of the Yugoslavian Constitution, that - 

“All citizens of the Federal Peoples Republic of Yugoslavia 
are equal before the law and enjoy equal rights regardless of 
nationality, race and creed.** 

You will note the Russian Constitution provided equality of 
tights irrespective of nationality whereas the Yugoslavian Con¬ 
stitution provided for equality of all citizens before the law re¬ 
gardless of nationality, race and creed, not the United States 
Constitution, while the Communist Constitution make pretense of 
protecting everyone's rights under the law. We know what a sham 
such rights are, 

We may talk on and on about the proposed outrageous abuses by 
the Federal government, whether under a Republican or Democratic 
regime. 

What Can We Do? 

But the question is what can we, or what shall we do about it? 
White solidarity is the only answer. 

Self preservation is the first law of nature. How can we preserve 
our constitutional rights, our liberty and freedom under law, our 
status as first class citizens, our self-respect and manhood IF we 
continue to run from the negroes whether they are backed up by a 
pro-Communist Federal government or not? 

We all know that in the case of forced racial integration of 
public schools in this country, wherever the negroes have moved in, 
the whites have moved out. 

The great experiment was tried in Washington, D.C. in 1954, and 
where prior to that time, there were 12 of the largest all-white 
public schools, now those same schools are over 95% negroes and 
only 5% whites, - the 95% whites ran away, possed over into 
Virginia where they were hounded and pursued '-py the Communist 
dominated NAACP, backed up by those in Federal government, who 
had been perverted to the subversive cause of the destruction of 
the education of our country's youth. 

And when some of the Virginia schools were integrated, didn't 
the whites run away from those schools, too? 

.-'-What is the Communist conspiracy in this regard but to integrate 
our public school system throughout the land to destroy the educa¬ 
tion of our youth so that after another generation, the American 
people will be as backwards technologically and scientifically that 
they will be helpless in national defense against the worldwide 
Communist conspiracy. 

Can we, as Americans, continue to run away from the negroes 
and turn over our nublic school system to them? 

9 











My friends, we have just got to stop running away from the 
negroes regardless of the pressure of threats and the consequences 
from federal government intervention. 

Let us take stock. The stakes are high. Our very liberty and 
freedom and the safety and happiness of our loved ones are at 
stake. No price - no sacrifice is too great. 

Solution Is In Our Own Hands 

We have the solution in our own hands which can avoid turmoil, 
strife and racial conflict. The responsibility lies with our Southern 
political leaders. , ' ■ ,' . . 

The . challenge is whether they will live up to the hopes and 
prayers, the expectations of their people and act now to join to¬ 
gether in the adoption of the only legal remedy left to save con¬ 
stitutional government and our way of life in this country. 

That opportunity lies in the November election of free inde¬ 
pendent presidential electors. 

Ambitious Democratic and Republican candidates for President 
and Vice-President have sold our birthright, for a mess of com¬ 
munists, pro-communists and negro bloc votes. National politics 
has deteriorated to a low standard of bloc vote control, . 

Well, my friends, we have in our hands, if we would but use it, 
the power of a bloc vote far greater than that of any other bloc or 
blocs in this country. 

There are 146 electoral votes in the Southern states from Texas 
to Virginia. Representatives of 10 Southern states filed an emphatic 
dissent against the adoption of the pro-Communist Civil Rights 
plank in the Democratic platform and placed their states of record 
as emphatically repudiating those provisions of the platform in¬ 
compatible with the Constitution of the United States, which under¬ 
takes to establish an indestructable union of. indestiuctable states. 

They asserted that the “rights of man” which is the purported 
theme of this platform can be protected only by the observance 
of the constitutional division of delegated powers between the 
federal and state governments and by strict adherance to the con¬ 
stitutional guarantee that all powers not delegated by the states to 
the union are reserved to the states or to the people. 

Will the political leaders in these southern states heed the 
demands of their people and back up that protest? 

People of South Must Demand Action From Their Officials 

Will the people of the Southern states rise up and demand of their 
political leaders from governors on down that they work together 
with the political leaders of other Southern states to the end that a 
solid bloc of free independent presidential electors be elected who 
shall repudiate the Communist manifesto represented by the Demo- 




cratic platform and its candidates who swear allegiance to such 
platform, cast their votes for the same persons as President and 
Vice-President after the November election, so as to throw this 
election of President in the House of Representatives of the United 
States Congress where every state will then have one vote? 

There, each Southern State's vote will count as much as New 
York's Harlem and pro-communist dominated 45 electoral votes. 
It must be remembered that when Heary Wallace ran for President 
in 1948 on an out and out Communist platform he got over a half 
million pro-communist votes in New York City. No candidate for 
president or any New York state office can carry that State by as 
much as a half million vote majority. That is why Walter Reuther 
and his fellow travelers had the Los Angeles Convention adopt the 
pro-communist so-called "Civil Rights” platform. That is why 
Governor Rockfeller forced the Republican convention to adopt the 
same type so-called "civil rights” platform. 

Both major parties are competing for the Henry Wallace pro- 
communist New York vote, and are willing to sell the country down 
the river in their lust for power, and to destroy constitutional 
government, our free enterprise "capitalistic” system, our personal 
liberty and freedom of choice, our states rights, yes - and finally 
to surrender our nation’s sovereignty to a World Court or to world 
government. 

It has often and generally been said that if constitutional 
government is to be saved in this country, it will have to be saved 
by the Southern States. 

I have no doubt but that if the people of the other Southern 
states are as aroused and alert to their own self interest and 
welfare, and if the officials from governor on down in these other 
Southern states are as dedicated to the welfare and happiness of 

their people and to the preservation of constitutional government 
and States Rights there could be no doubt as to what the Southern 
states will do come November in this serious crisis. 

Therein lies out principal hope. 

Failing in that, we can only forsee bitter years ahead of turmoil, 
strife and conflict, until the tide will change from pro-Communism 
to resurrection of real American patriotism and dedication to Con¬ 
stitutional government in Washington. 

My friends, my parting word is, "Let’s stop running from the 
negroes. If necessary, stand up and fight. We cannot surrender our 
rights, our liberties and freedom and above all, our families to the 
ravages which will follow abject surrender to the negroes, or to 
communist subversion in government. 


11 













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(NAME OF CONTR1 


(ADDRESS OF CONTRIBUTOR) 


To Be Returned 


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1 


STRENGTH 

THROUGH 

UNITY! 


A, 




Address by 

GOVERNOR ROSS R. BARNETT 
Of Mississippi 

\j CITIZENS’ COUNCIL RALLY 
NEW ORLEANS 
March 7, 1960 

bwTtmnnMnmirmmitim.1 



















STRENGTH THROUGH UNITY! 

Friends, it’s always a pleasure , to visit 
New Orleans. I am especially ’delighted'* to 
speak at this meeting tonight. It's a real in¬ 
spiration to see this demonstration of solidari¬ 
ty on the part of the people of New Orleans— 
to see that you still have tha,t spirit of de¬ 
termination which is so necessary if we are 
to preserve our hard-won freedoms. 

Your presence here tonight indicates to 
me that you are doing one of the most im¬ 
portant things any private citizen can do to 
help win this mortal struggle. You are sup¬ 
porting the Citizens' Council movement. 

The Citizens' Councils and their affiliates 
in other Southern states are the ONLY pri 
vate. agencies which have risen to meet the 
challenge of our times! 

The Citizens' Councils — which were born 
in Mississippi, I am proud to say—-have 
now organized in thousands of communities 
throughout the South. They have - sent a 
steady flow of literature into Northern and 
Western states. The Citizens’ Councils hav$ 
published a monthly newspaper for the past 
five years. This paper goes into every state 
in the Union and to many foreign countries. 

Leaders of the Citizens’ Council movement 
have appeared on speakers^ platforms in the 
North and West dozens of ^imes. 

But perhaps the most dramatic success 
story of the Citizens’ Council movement is in 
the field of television and radio. Every week, 
“Citizens’ Council Forum” is seen and heard 
on more than 300 television and radio sta¬ 
tions in 43 states —from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific, and from the Great Lakes to the Gulf. 

Every week, millions of Americans every¬ 
where watch and listen as outstanding Sena¬ 
tors and Congressmen talk about fundamen¬ 
tal American principles. 

^ Friends, I am proud that I have been a 
Citizens’ Council member since the Councils’ 
early days. I hope that EVERY SINGLE 
WHITE SOUTHERNER will join with me in 
becoming a member of this fine organization. 
The Citizens’ Councils are fighting your 
fight —they deserve YOUR support! That is 

(3) 





one thing each of you, as individuals, CAN 
and SHOULD be doing! 

At the famous Battle of Liberty Place on 
September 14, 1874, the white citizens of 
New Orleans rose up in arms against the 
tyrannical rule of the Carpetbaggers. Local 
self-government was restored. 

Now, after 85 years, there are those in 
our National Government who would once 
again place New Orleans and the entire 
South at the mercy of the NAACP and other 
modern-day Carpetbaggers. At this very 
moment, our Southern leaders in Congress 
are battling heroically against vicious Force 
Bills which would destroy individual freedom. 
y A willful group of evil men are behind 
these Force Bills. They would trade the in¬ 
dividual freedom and the racial integrity of 
the South for a few thousand left wing votes 
in big Northern cities. They have enlisted 
the aid of powerful and wealthy organiza¬ 
tions and are waging constant propaganda 
warfare against us. 

But despite all these efforts, the people 
of the South will stand firm. We will not 
surrender ourselves to' endure another siege 
of Carpetbag rule! 

Regardless of what happens in Washing¬ 
ton, we will not permit the NAACP and 
other left wing organizations to rule the 
South! . 

As a matter of fact, .some of the white 
folks up North are getting pretty fed up 
with the left wing groups and their political 
stodgfes. ■ - 

Only fhe other day, I was reading in the 
Citizens' Council newspaper that the North 
is- beginning-to -organize'^'th'aT groups~are - 
springing up. all the way from New York to 
California, all pledged to end left wing po¬ 
litical domination. 

The fact is that the white people of the 
North don’t like the NAACP and other left 
wing organizations any better than we do! 
They’re tired of haying their political spokes¬ 
men bowing and scraping for the left wing 
bl.oc vote! And they’re ready to do some- 
filing about it! ‘ vV 

In spite of all the propaganda the race- 
mixers can produce, in spite of all the phony 

.(4) 



"brotherhood” being talked, the fact is that 
the average white American, wherever he 
lives, doesn’t want integration! Maybe he 
doesn’t know WHY — and maybe the propa¬ 
gandists have even aroused a little sympa¬ 
thy in him —but THAT’S THE WAY HE 
FEELS! HE DOESN’T WANT TO INTE¬ 
GRATE! v * ' - - • 

We in the South must capitalize on this 
feeling, before it’s too late. We have one big 
advantage in this struggle: The majority of 
Americans are STILL- on OUR side! iWe 
must give our Northern friends our backing; 
we must show them that mixing the races 
leads inevitably to the production of an in¬ 
ferior mongrel. We must show the nation 
that continued separation of the races is vital, 
if we are to preserve the greatness of 
America! 

If we can give FACTS to’ our friends 
throughout the nation, then the children of 
the North and West won’t be brainwashed 
by their left-wing teachers. 

The women of the North and West won’t 
be fooled by the do-gooders and the social 
agitators. 

And the men of the North and West 
won’t be taken in by the phony economists, 
who rave and rant and argue that integration 
is good for business. 

The rest of the country is READY to hear 
our story! In fact, they are, in many cases, 
BEGGING to hear it! They need our moral 
support. And we cannot — we must not — 
let them down. 

The magnitude of this project taxes the 
imagination. The scope it must encompass 
borders on the infinite. But we in the South 
WILL do the job, because it MUST BE DONE! 
There must be cooperation between the 
Southern states as never before. There must 
be no petty bickering, no wasteful duplica¬ 
tion, no diversion of time and energy from 
the vital task before us. 

If each Southern state were to go its 
separate way, perhaps SOME good could be 
accomplished. But think of the multiplied 
good of a unified, cooperative program, with 
ALL the Southern states working together, 
pooling our resources and our talent, and 

(5) 















armed with the certain knowledge that 
RIGHT is on OUR side! 

To win this life-or-death fight, we must 
start with a TOTAL MOBILIZATION of all 
our resources. This has been delayed too 
long already. There is no room for halfway 
measures. Either we are going to ENTER 
this fight to WIN — and do everything pos¬ 
sible TO win — or we had just as well sur¬ 
render now! 

I have urged the people of Mississippi 
and I now urge the people of the South to 
respond to this call for total mobilization. 
All of our resources — both public and pri¬ 
vate— must be fully utilized. There are 
certain fields where private agencies — such 
as the Citizens' Councils — can be most ef¬ 
fective. There are other activities that the 
people should undertake through their state 
governments. Our leaders must get in step 
with our people! 

The South’s FINANCIAL resources must 
be mobilized. We are currently enjoying 
the greatest prosperity in our history. Sure¬ 
ly, we should be willing to divert whatever 
funds are necessary to WIN THIS FIGHT, 
so we may continue to ENJOY our pros¬ 
perity. 

We must mobilize our MENTAL re¬ 
sources. The best brains of the South should 
work together to formulate specific pro¬ 
grams in our drive to re-educate the North 
in fundamental American principles. 

Our MORAL and SPIRITUAL resources 
must be mobilized. We know we're right — 
and we must show it in our everyday living, 
WE MUST NOT APOLOGIZE FOR BEING 
RIGHT; rather, we should assume the atti¬ 
tude of long-suffering, patient missionaries, 
laboring diligently to bring enlightenment 
to a people less fortunate than ourselves. 
The South has a great spritual heritage — it 
is the stronghold of religion in America — 
and our moral and spiritual leaders should 
provide us with the kind of leadership we 
will need so badly if our cause is to prevail. 

Finally, we must mobilize pur PHYSI¬ 
CAL resources.. This, means, frankly, that 
we must .find out NOW who among us can 
be counted upon to do whatever is neces- 

( 6 ) 




sary to preserve our freedoms. My friends, 
physical courage is a trait sadly lacking in 
altogether too many of the South's so-called 
leaders. We must separate the men from 
the boys. We .must identify the traitors, in 
our midst. We must eliminate the cowards 
from our front lines. 

And friends, let me say to you tonight 
that in this respect, Ross Barnett will do his 
best to provide Mississippi with the kind 
of leadership that comes from setting a 
good example! I am sure your officials can 
be counted upon to do the samel 

Now up to this point, I’ve been talking 
about Southern Unity in rather general 
terms. That's the easy way — and the safe, 
way—to do it. Everyone's in favor of 
Southern Unity, as long as you keep it in 
the abstract. And it's easy to talk in gen¬ 
eralities. 

But friends, I propose to do more than 
just TALK about Southern Unity! I propose 
th.at all of us begin here and now to take 
specific action which will ACHIEVE that 
unity we’re all seeking! 

First, the Southern governors must really 
get acquainted with one another, so that we 
may create close, personal working relation¬ 
ships. That's one reason, why I was so happy 
to see Jimmy Davis at my inauguration in 
Jackson last January, along with Governor 
John. Patterson of Alabama and Governor 
Ernest Hollings of South Carolina. We need 
to get together—to really KNOW each other 
—to form close and lasting friendships. That's 
the way REAL unity begins. 

Friends, I’m happy to say tonight that to 
ray humble way of thinking, there has been 
more real progress made along these lines 
in the past two months than any time since 
1948. And you all know what happened in 
1948! 

The leaders in our State Legislatures and 
our other state officials are also eager to see 
some real, old-fashioned Southern Unity ! By 
exchanging visits, by meeting together peri¬ 
odically, the entire leadership structure of the 
South is being molded into a solid group. We 
are all under attack by the Bame enemies ~ 

(7) 







so why shouldn’t we get together to plan the 
ways in which we can WIN this fight? 

Now you’ll notice I said WIN this fight! 
I didn’t say we should unite to defend our¬ 
selves. There’s a world of difference, friends. 

In my humble opinion, we in the South 
have too long regarded our State govern¬ 
ments merely as instruments of passive de¬ 
fense. We have been too hesitant in taking 
the offensive! 

This, is my second proposal — once our 
Southern leaders are united, we must launch 
a vigorous campaign to. get the FULL 
POWER of our State governments into this 
fight as an OFFENSIVE one — to take an 
AGGRESSIVE position— and to take the 
initiative away from our enemies! 

One way we can do this is through the 
creation of special agencies in each South¬ 
ern state to coordinate our efforts, and to 
finance this battle with public funds. 

Mississippi already has such an agency 
— it’s called the State Sovereignty Commis¬ 
sion. And I'm happy to learn that Louisi¬ 
ana, too, will very shortly have an active 
Sovereignty Commission, under the capable 
leadership of Senator Willie Rainach. Other 
Southern states are making similar plans. 

The - law which created the Mississippi 
State Sovereignty Commission stated the 
Commission’s functions in this manner: 

“It shall be the duty of the Commission to 
do and perform any and all acts and things 
deemed necessary and proper to protect the 
sovereignty of the State of Mississippi, and 
her sister states, from encroachment thereon 
by the Federal Government or any branch, 
department or agency thereof, and to resist 
the usurpation of the rights and powers re¬ 
served to this state and our sister states by 
the Federal Government or any branch, de¬ 
partment or agency thereof.” 

Now, the Mississippi Legislature which 
adopted this act four years ago certainly 
didn’t think that one state could do the job 
all by itself. Not at all. In fact, here’s what 
our Legislature wrote into the law regarding 
how the Commission should carry out its 
duties: 


( 8 > 










“The Commission may cooperate with one 
or more of the states of the Union, or any 
agency or. agencies, commission or commis¬ 
sions thereof, or with any person or persona, 
corporation or corporations, organization or 
organizations, and--may join with them or 
any of them, and pool such of the funds and 
resources of this Commission in carrying out 
the objectives and purposes of this act as 
may be deemed necessary and proper by 
the Commission.” 

Let me ask you — isn't this a fine exam¬ 
ple of Southern Unity already in being? 
Wouldn’t it be wonderful if ALL the South¬ 
ern states would create similar commissions, 
to work together toward our common goals? 
This is my third proposal — that each state 
create a special agency to work on this 
problem, in cooperation with similar groups 
from other Southern states, and also in co¬ 
operation with private agencies, such as the 
Citizens’ Councils. 

Ladies and gentlemen, the PEOPLE of 
the South are making great progress toward 
getting united! Just look at the thousands 
of dollars from all over the South that 
poured in to Little Rock and to Virginia for 
their private schools. The PEOPLE of the 
South already realize that what happens 
somewhere else today can have a profound 
influence on what happens AT HOME to¬ 
morrow. And the people are anxious to DO 
SOMETHING about it! 

Let me say here that the Citizens’ Coun¬ 
cils throughout the South are the ONE capa¬ 
ble and responsible organization through 
which our people are making their strength 
felt through unity. 

Friends, that’s what our Southern State 
governments need, too — STRENGTH 
THROUGH UNITY! There’s no need 
to waste our time in planning strategy until 
we have that strength mobilized — strength 
in our Governors, Legislatures, private citi¬ 
zens, and organizations. 

Then and only then will our views pre¬ 
vail. When we HAVE the strength, the so¬ 
lutions of ALL our problems will be easy. Our 
strength will give us the means of solving 
them. V,*. 



My friends, the only way we can WIN 
this fight, is to DEFEAT the enemy — to de¬ 
stroy them before they destroy ,us. No vic¬ 
tory can ever be won if we sit back and wait 
for our enemies to attack us. Our enemies 
wish we would continue such a policy. That 
way, they could pick off the entire South, 
one state at a time, concentrating all their 
propaganda machinery and all their high- 
priced legal talent on just ONE state. 

But we are not going to fall into this 
trap. We still remember the words of Benja¬ 
min Franklin, spoken at the beginning of the 
American Revolution. Franklin said: “We 
must all hang together, or, assuredly we shall 
all hang separately.’* Friends, that statement 
is just as true today as it was in Colonial 
times. The South mast stick together if vic¬ 
tory is to be ours.vThe left-wing elements in 
this nation must be completely and utterly 
crushed — and that's just what we intend 
to do, using as our chief weapon the impact 
of nationwide public opinion. 

There is another vital area where the 
South must stand united against a common 
enemy. That is in the field of national poli¬ 
tics. This summer, both major political par¬ 
ties will hold their national conventions to 
write platforms and select candidates for 
President and Vice-President. 

And if present indications hold true, the 
conventions will degenerate into a contest in 
which each party tries to outdo the other in 
submitting the South to abuse, vilification, 
scorn and contempt. Both parties will likely 
be eagerly seeking the title of champion 
South-haters. 

This unhappy prediction can be fore¬ 
stalled only by forceful, determined and 
courageous leadership in the South, acting 
boldly to preserve the self-respect of a proud 
and honorable people. 

I have told my people repeatedly that, 
as far as national politics are concerned, I 
am a MISSISSIPPI DEMOCRAT — and the 
first word of that phrase means far more 
to me than the second 1 

When I go to the Democratic National. 
Convention in Los Angeles this summer, I 
will conduct myself at all times AS a Misr 

( 10 ) 














sissippi Democrat;, I ’ will remember at all 
times that as Governor of Mississippi, I am 
at that convention representing the people 
of our great state. And the racial integrity 
of our people is NOT for sale on the politi¬ 
cal auction block! 

Where the principles of the people of 
Mississippi are involved, there can be no 
compromise! The people did not elect me 
Governor of Mississippi to bargain their 
heritage away in a smoke-filled room! 

I did not become their Governor to pre¬ 
side over the liquidation of our precious 
freedoms! 

And I know that the Governors of most 
other Southern states feel as I do in this re¬ 
gard. The only question in the minds of the 
dedicated leaders of the South is what 
course should be followed. 

This decision must be made soon. It must 
be made while there is time for active 
consultation among our political leaders 
throughout the South. It must not be de¬ 
layed until the last minute when our op¬ 
ponents will use the age-old strategy of di¬ 
vide and conquer. 

The South must go to the Democratic 
National Convention UNITED — and the 
South must REMAIN united, either IN the 
Convention or OUT! 

Friends, I am happy to be able to report 
to you tonight that within a very short time, 
the Southern Governors will meet to plan our 
unified course of action! 

I am confident that out of this meeting 
will come a determined, fearless course of 
action — one which every loyal Southerner 
will be proud to support. 

You will then know that the South is 
committed, solidly and in advance, to a plan 
of action which will show our desire to re¬ 
main in the political house of our fathers, 
while at the same time demonstrating in no 
uncertain terms that we do not intend to 
acquiesce in the destruction of the IDEALS 
of our fathers by ANY party! 

> , There are some who will declare solemn¬ 
ly that they stand for peace at any price — 
that we must work out our difficulties with¬ 
in the framework of the Democratic party, 

( 11 ) 












regardless of the insult, calumny and abuse 
Which come our way, 

I say to you that THERE IS NO SUCH 
THING AS PEACE AT ANY PRICE! Such 
men do not seek peace — they seek to bind 
the South in the chains of political slavery. 
I ask you tonight: What is your choice? Will 
you place yourselves in permanent political 
bondage? Or will you act as FREE MEN? 

I've been thinking over some of our po¬ 
litical problems, and I would like to make a 
few observations. 

First is this: If sanity is to be restored to 
our national government, the South must be 
the moving force. And a UNITED SOUTH 
WILL HAVE A TREMENDOUS INFLUENCE 
on the outcome of this Fall's elections. 

Next, we must make SURE that the South 
will have REAL freedom of choice and ac¬ 
tion this Fall! We must be absolutely certain 
that our people will have the opportunity to 
vote their real convictions! In Alabama, Ar¬ 
kansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi and 
South Carolina, and other Southern states, 
the people are ready to cast off the yoke of 
Northern political domination. Citizens of 
many other states are demanding the same 
freedom. 

I've already said back home that the 
Mississippi Democratic Party should hold a 
recessed state convention — a convention that 
will automatically meet back AFTER the 
national convention to review whatever de¬ 
cisions are made in Los Angeles by the na¬ 
tional party. Naturally, I hope other South¬ 
ern states will do the same! 

A few days ago, Congressman Bill Colmer 
addressed a joint session of our Mississippi 
Legislature. He’s the dean of our State's 
Congressional delegation, and is also the 
chairman of the Southern strategy group in 
Congress. 

Congressman Colmer and a number of 
other Southern leaders have, for some time, 
been urging adoption of a plan to put INDE¬ 
PENDENT ELECTORS on the ballot in ev¬ 
ery Southern state this November. 

He told the Mississippi Legislature that 
the II Southern states have a total of 128 

< 12 ) 




electoral votes — the biggest single minority 
bloc vote in the country! and he urged that 
these 128 electoral votes be withheld from 
any candidate not acceptable to the South. 

The joint session cheered when Congress¬ 
man Colmer pointed out that a united South, 
by withholding its electoral votes, could pre¬ 
vent any candidate from getting a majority 
in the electoral college, and thereby throw 
the election into the House of Representa¬ 
tives, where every state has just one vote. 

This, of course, could result in the elec¬ 
tion of a Southern compromise candidate 
to the Presidency, 

Friends, this came very close to hap¬ 
pening back in 1948—just two more South¬ 
ern states would have done this. And I have 
the feeling that the South will be MORE 
united and MORE powerful this Fall than 
it was 12 years ago! Southern voters will 
have an opportunity to vote their convic¬ 
tions on Election Day! 

I believe this Independent Elector pro¬ 
posal has merit from two standpoints. First, 
if the Democrats and Republicans get into 
a close race up North, the 128 INDEPEND¬ 
ENT ELECTORS from the South — the 
SOLID SOUTH —would be a real factor in 
determining the outcome of the Presidential 
election. The South would hold- the balance 
of power! 

But even if this were NOT the case, the 
proposal is still sound on a MORAL basis. 
Friends, I AM GOING TO VOTE MY CON¬ 
VICTIONS THIS NOVEMBER! The way I 
look at it. if we vote for integration, how can 
we expect anything else? 

One of the Northern parties is virtually 
certain to nominate a. Presidential candi¬ 
date who’s a card-carrying member of the 
NAACP. The way things look now, BOTH 
parties might do this. 

CAN YOU VOTE FOR AN NAACP 
MEMBER FOR PRESIDENT? 

Ross Barnett certainly cannot! In my 
humble opinion, if we are so foolish as to 
vote for our own destruction, we will de¬ 
serve whatever we get as a consequence! 






Now if both parties DO nominate NAACP 
members for President, what can we in the 
South do? 

Well, friends, we certainly can't vote for 
EITHER of them! We've got to be sure we've 
got someplace to go on Election Day — and 
there sure wouldn’t be enough fishing holes 
to go around! I intend to see that the people 
of Mississippi DO have someplace to go — 
someplace on the ballot where they can cast 
their votes without apology, and without 
sacrificing our cherished American principles 
and Southern heritage. As a loyal South¬ 
erner, X can do no less! 

We must not commit ourselves in ad¬ 
vance to whatever Earl Warren or Walter 
Reuther may decide! We MUST become unit¬ 
ed— we must pledge ourselves to stick to¬ 
gether, to put the South in the strongest 
possible bargaining position. An Independ¬ 
ent Elector plan MUST be a South-wide 
plan. There is NO PLACE in the Solid South 
for splinter movements r-r'we MUST be 
united in whatever,we do! 

Only a prophet could tell at this early 
date what the outcome of the 1960 election 
will be. I will not even venture a guess. But 
I DO know this: When the election is over, 
Ross Barnett will not have to apologize. I 
will be able to look the people of Mississippi 
in the eye and say, ‘‘I have kept the faith.” 

And I know that the good people of New 
Orleans and of the state of Louisiana can 
also be depended upon to keep the faith—to 
fight the good fight. 

Your grandfathers and mine kept faith, 
even beneath the conqueror's boot. In this 
great city of New Orleans — and throughout 
your state and mine — loyal Southerners re¬ 
mained true to their principles, even while 
enduring the cruel excesses of the Recon¬ 
struction era. 

Our grandfathers did not give us victory 
in the sixties; instead, they left us something 
far more priceless, an example of courage 
and a heritage of valor and sacrifice. 

They did not surrender! They fought on 
— with heavy hearts, it is true —but the 

(14) 







thought of surrender did not cross their 
minds. And, in the end, victory was theirs. 


One of the greatest statesmen and his¬ 


torians of the 20th Century — Winston 
Churchill — described our courageous ances¬ 
tors in these eloquent terms 

“Better their complete destruction than 
that history had recorded that they had 
yielded. Any ma,n can be trampled down by 
superior force, and death, in whatever shape 
it comes, is only death, which comes to all." 
















77*7? 






FOR FURTHER INFORMATION 
WRITE TO THE 
EDUCATIONAL FUND OF THE 

CITIZENS' COUNCILS 

Greenwood, Miss, 


READ AND PASS ON 


WE NEED YOUR HELP 

We hope you can make a contribution to the 
Educational Fund which will be used to 

(1) Publish and distribute nationwide tactual litera¬ 
ture presenting the case for states' rights and 
racial integrity. 

(2) Initiate a movement to enter the national propa¬ 
ganda media such as the national press services, 
television, radio, national publications and the 
motion pioture industry. 

Our auditors believe contributions will be deduc¬ 
tible from your income tax. Every effort will be made 
to get this tax-free status, and we believe these efforts 
will be successful. 





FD-340 (REV, 8*17*68) 



Date Received 


To Be Returned 


Description! 


Vv e>r..o.., 

vv #*v=i'£L*. k ® 




Congressional 
Committee Report 

on 

What Happened 
When Schools 
Were Integrated in 
Washington, D. C. 




Distributed as a Public Service by 

EDUCATIONAL FUND OF THE 

CITIZENS' COUNCILS 

GHEENWOOD, MISS. 






i 



Fo/iow/ng ore excerpts from a report on integration «/ 
public schools in Washington, D. C. ( mode by a subcom 
mittee of the House Committee On the District of 
and released Dec. 28,1956: umb ’° 


The Subcommittee of the House of Representatives on the 
District of Columbia to Investigate the District of Columbia 
Public Schools and Juvenile Delinquency in the District of 
Columbia submits the following report to the full Hou 
Committee on the District of Columbia. 

Complete, accurate and reliable information was needed 
by the Committee on the District of Columbia to clarify 
the many conflicting reports, rumors and misleading in¬ 
formation about conditions in the Washington schools* At 
tempts to obtain a true picture of the state of affairs had 
met with little success. The subcommittee was appointed 
to make an investigation. The committee started work on 
July 11, and held open hearings from Sept. 19 unt j| q c( 


Prior to September, 1954, the public-school system in the 
District of Columbia was operated on a racially separat 
basis, the white schools being referred to as the division I 
schools and the Negro schools as division II. There was a 
superintendent of the entire school system, and directly 
under him was an assistant superintendent in charge of 
division I and an assistant superintendent in charge of divi¬ 
sion II. 

Each of the divisions had the same curriculum and course 
of study which was set up and approved by a joint integrated 
committee. They had access to the same textbooks. Funds 
for textbooks and supplies were allotted on a per capita basis 
Except for teachers’ salaries, which will be discussed later 
funds appropriated for the entire school operation were 
allocated on a per capita basis. 

Two normal schools were maintained for the training of 
teachers; a white school known as Wilson Teachers College 
and a Negro school known as Miner Teachers College. B 
The teachers in each of the divisions were adequate in 
numbers and certification. They were paid on the same 
salary scale and ranked among the highest paid in the pub 
lie schools of the United States. ^ 


On May 17, 1954, the United States Supreme Court ruled 
that racial segregation of students in the public schools in 
the District of Columbia and throughout the United States 
was unconstitutional and not in conformity with the Four¬ 
teenth Amendment. 

Notwithstanding the fact that the Supreme Court had 
deferred further action on these cases until the October term 
of Court in 1954 for the purpose of giving the legal repre¬ 
sentatives of the several States an opportunity to present 
further argument, immediate request was made for integrat¬ 
ing the Washington schools with a public admonition by the 
President of the United States that they should serve as a 
model of integrated schools to be copied by the rest of the 
country. 

Little serious or genuine preparation for such a major 
change had been made. Eight days after the Supreme Court 
ruling—on May 25, 1954—the board of education of the 

(31 









District of Columbia, by a vote of 6 to 3, ordered the schools 
to be integrated and adopted the following declarations of 
policy: 

1, Appointments* transfers, preferments, promotions, 
ratings, or any other matters respecting the officers and 
employes of the board shall be predicated solely upon 
merit and not upon race or color. 

2, No pupil of the public schools shall be favored or 
discriminated against in any matter or in any manner re¬ 
specting his or her relationship to the schools of the Dis¬ 
trict of Columbia by reason of race or color, 

3, Attendance of pupils residing within school boun¬ 
daries, hereafter to be established, shall not be permitted 
at schools located beyond such boundaries, except for the 
most necessitous reasons or for the public convenience, 
and in no event for reasons related to the racial character 
of the school within the boundaries in which the pupil 
resides. 

4, The board believes that no record should be kept 
or maintained in respect to any pupil not enrolled in a 
public school on or prior to June 17, 1954, or in respect 
to any officer or employe not employed within the system 
on or prior to that date in which information is 
solicited or recorded related to the color or race of any 
such person. 

5, That the maximum efficient use shall be made of all 
physical facilities without regard to race or color* 

The president of the board of education testified that he 
had opposed the quick action that was taken by the board 
in integrating the schools. He stated that, in the light of 
history* an effort should have been made to determine 
whether the division II students were on the same grade 
level as those in division I before integration was ordered. 
He stated further that the integrated school system of the 
District of Columbia is not a model to be followed by any 
school system in the United States. 

Many of the school personnel testified that integration of 
the schools in the District of Columbia was too hasty, that it 
was done without adequately preparing the principals, 
teachers or students for the problems to be encountered* 

It is the intention of the committee to present a report 
designed to aid in improving the conditions affecting public- 
school children of the District of Columbia, It is the desire 
of the committee to relieve the able, courageous and ex¬ 
cellent principals, teachers and officials from pressures that 
have been a handicap to them* The problem presented is too 
serious and too far-reaching to be considered lightly by Con¬ 
gress and the people. 

Washington, D. C, is the most favorable choice as an in¬ 
tegration experiment most likely to succeed, Our best edu¬ 
cated Negroes are migrating to the capital in ‘great numbers. 
The Negro per capita income in the District of Columbia is 
higher than the white income in some areas of the nation. 
As residents of the nation's capital, the people of the District 
of Columbia enjoy more cultural advantages than people of 
any other city in America. The District of Columbia Negroes 
have had school facilities superior to most other school 
districts in the nation. No other place in the nation offers 
such superior advantages for a successful integration pro¬ 
gram. 

The investigation and subsequent hearings were con- 

( 4 > 





ducted in an atmosphere charged with abuse and name 
catling directed at members of the committee and its chief 
counsel by some of the Washington press, some minority 
pressure groups and other advocates of integrated schools. 
This conduct was constant and deliberate, It was unques¬ 
tionably intended to destroy the effectiveness of the investi¬ 
gation. 

The bias of ode of the Washington newspapers in favor 
of integration is illustrated by the following testimony of 
Mrs, Elva C. Wells, principal of Theodore Roosevelt High 
School; 

"One of the Washington papers sent out a photographer 
to my graduation and came up to me as f was leaving the 
stage and asked for permission to take pictures of the 
Negro honor students. And I said, "Well, we have no 

Negro honor students, but we have many, many honor 

students/ They would not take the pictures of the honor 
students. I tried very hard last year to get all three papers 
to give us a big build-up on the scholarships and honors 
which our school bad won. 

"As I told you, we were the only public high school to 
have a national merit scholarship winner. We had scholar¬ 
ships to Dartmouth, Harvard, Cornell, Pennsylvania, 
Princeton and many others that I can't say offhand. I 
wanted a big build-up on that. And I got all the informa¬ 
tion, because I felt it would offset some of the press on 

the low standards and so forth, f could not get that before 
the public in the press, I could not get that written up . 

"Well, 1 don't know that I should use the word refusal/ 
He just said he wasn't interested in taking it. Perhaps I 
should put it that way. I offered that. I said, 4 We do not 
have a Negro student in the honor group, but we have 
many students that have won honors, and I would like you 
to take it/ And he said* 4 Well, no/ He said he was sent out 
to get the Negro students who had won honors. And if 
my memory serves me correctly, it was the Washington 


A mass meeting sponsored by the NAACP [National As¬ 
sociation for the Advancement of Colored People] was 
planned and held to protest the investigation. 

During the course of the hearings the Protestants, ap¬ 
parently fearful of the impending revelation of the truth 
made a vigorous effort to halt the proceedings. 

Entreaties were made to President Eisenhower, presiden¬ 
tial candidate Adlai Stevenson, Republican Chairman Leon¬ 
ard Hall, Democratic Chairman Paul Butler, Speaker Sam 
Rayburn, House Leader John McCormack, and all members 
of the House District Committee, vigorously urging them to 
use their influence in preventing the subcommittee from 
functioning in its legitimate endeavor to gather information 
heretofore withheld from the Congress and the public. 

Immediately after Mrs, Elva C. Wells, principal of Theo¬ 
dore Roosevelt High School, testified before the com¬ 
mittee, Wesley Williams, a Negro member of the District 
board of education, issued a public statement suggesting 
that "Dr, Coming should re-examine the competency of 
some of the principals" who appeared at the hearings. He 
said that some had "made severe admissions of inade¬ 
quacy/' 

When it is considered that this attack was obviously di¬ 
rected at Mrs, Wells, one of the outstanding and able prin- 









cipals in the District school system, who had been in the 
school system since 1929, and had very successfully operated 
a most outstanding high school in Washington, it is evident 
that this unwarranted attack was intended to coerce and 
intimidate and cause witnesses not to appear and testify at 
the hearings* This was somewhat effective in the light of the 
fact that the subcommittee used only voluntary witnesses. 
Subsequent to this attack, some teachers and principals were 
reluctant or failed to appear because they were fearful of 
reprisals at the hands of certain members of the board of 
education* 

This fact was clearly demonstrated in the testimony, on 
the day after this attack was published, of Miss Dorothy 
Tripp, principal of Langdon and Woodridge Schools, who 
made the following observation before the subcommittee: 

"1 think before I go further I want to make a point that 
I am a little bit concerned over a statement made in the 
[Washington] ‘Star yesterday referring to Mr* Williams* 
{our board member) seven-page statement issued to the 
press, stating that "Dr* Coming should re-examine the com¬ 
petence of some of the principals' who appeared at the 
hearings. He said he felt some had 'made severe admis¬ 
sions of inadequacy/ I want to be awfully sure, before I go 
deeper into this, want to feel there will be no reprisal- 
ar no retribution, maybe, is a better word—of any kind 
on any statements I may be making before this commit¬ 
tee. , , . 

"I don't feel I am here under pressure. 1 feel it is my 
professional duty to be here even if it were not a required 
thing; but under the circumstances I thought I should 
make that clear before I go further because 1 may say 
some things in the course of the questioning that would 
reflect upon the work my teachers and I have done that 
we felt we have done the best we could under the cir¬ 
cumstances and will continue to do so*" 

This attack had so intimidated some of the prospective 
witneSsSes that it became necessary to bring before the sub¬ 
committee Superintendent Hobart S. Corning, who reassured 
the school personnel that no reprisals would be imposed 
against them for testifying before the subcommittee. Not¬ 
withstanding this assurance, some were still doubtful and 
did not appear. Many who did appear showed effects of 
intimidation and coercion and were fearful to repeat many 
statements they had made to the subcommittee staff when 
originally interviewed* 

In an effort to encourage the submission of pertinent facts, 
on the ffrst day of the hearings the chairman of the sub¬ 
committee made the following statement: 

Mr. Davis ^Representative James C* Davis (Dem,), of 
Georgia]; I want to make this announcement before this 
session adjourns: I have had letters from several organi¬ 
zations stating that they wanted to appear as witnesses. 

I do not know what information they have, or might have, 
that would be relevant to this investigation* The committee 
will be glad to have any organization or group which 
feels it has anything to offer for this investigation to sub¬ 
mit a statement or a summary of what they think they 
could give us information on. You may submit that to 
counsel, Mr, Gerber [William Gerber, subcommittee coun¬ 
sel), and if the committee deems it relevant and pertinent, 
we will be glad to have you as a witness. 

( 6 } 




It should be noted that, daring the investigation and at 
the public hearings all of the witnesses appeared volun¬ 
tarily, They were selected from the school personnel list 
furnished by the school administration without regard to 
race. 

Many teachers, both white and colored* appeared on a 
confidential basis* with the request that they not be used as 
witnesses. 

It is the intention of the subcommittee to present the 
problems of major importance factually* clearly, frankly and 
fully enough for the public to know what has happened and 
is happening in our capital city. Every citizen has a direct 
interest in Washington affairs, particularly inasmuch as 
Washington has been designated to serve as a model of 
public-school integration. 

Some problems of major importance as revealed by the 
open hearings will be discussed at some length in this report. 
Other items will be stated briefly- A vast amount of per¬ 
tinent information of vital interest to school people and 
public officials was given in private hearings and is on file. 
For reasons mentioned heretofore, not all of the picture is in 
printed public record. 

One situation of great concern to the nation is the fact 
that the white population is leaving Washington. The rec¬ 
ords show* conclusively, that the elementary school popula¬ 
tion was increasing after World War II until the first steps 
into integration were taken in public housing and other 
fields. At the first threat of integration, the white residents 
began to leave. 

EFFECT OF SCHOOL INTEGRATION 
ON POPULATION 

The exodus of white residents from the District of Colum¬ 
bia was accelerated by the persistent agitation for school 
integration which culminated in the ruling by the Supreme 
Court, The subsequent establishment of school boundaries 
which resulted in forcing the mixing of white and Negro 
students, caused a great many of the white residents to move 
to the suburban areas and into the States of Maryland and 
Virginia. Many have enrolled their children in racially seg¬ 
regated private schools. This exodus is continuing at this 
moment, according to the testimony of school personnel and 
there is a prediction that, in the not-too-distant future the 
District of Columbia will be a predominantly Negro com¬ 
munity. 

Where there were a few years ago 59,582 white students 
and 33,498 Negro students, the school census as of Oct. 21 
1955, disclosed that there was a school membership of 38,768 
white students and 68,877 Negro students. The school census 
of October, 1956, clearly indicates the continued exodus of 
the white residents from the District of Columbia. This census 
shows that the school population is now 34,750 white stu¬ 
dents (32 per cent) and 73,723 Negro students (68 per cent). 

ENROLLMENT STATISTICS 

The following tables tell the story, more clearly than 
words, that integration is the direct cause of the flight of the 
white people from Washington. 

L The postwar elementary white enrollment was increas¬ 
ing until the first type of integration started around 1949-50, 

2. The loss was very slow until 1953 when plans tor 
school integration were under way L The whites then moved 
out rapidly. 


< 7 ) 









3* The heaviest loss was within the last year, 1956. 

Not only do these figures indicate that integration was the 
cause of the exodus, but the 1956 figures show that the 
situation is growing more acute, 

THE RESULTS OF INTEGRATION- 
TABLES OF WHITE EXODUS 

Total enrollment as of October of each year . 


1953 1954 1955 1956 

Total white ...44,897 41,393 38,768 34,750 

Total Negro ....58,936 64,090 68,877 73/723 


Percentage of white decline,. -2/7 -7-8 -8.3 T0.4 

The white enrollment 1949-50 (start of housing and other 
integration) was 48,696, 

The white decrease, 1949-1956, is 13,946 or 28-6 per cent. 

The change irt elementary enrollment is a more accurate 
indication of the shift in population than the total enrollment, 
or that of any other group. The next table shows the elemen¬ 
tary growth, 1945-49. 

The years of white elementary increase. 


1946 1947 1948 1949 

Enrollment ...»...^...26,352 26,726 26,916 28,528 

Per cent of increase.. +.6 +1,4 +/7 +6,0 


This growth was ended when housing and other integra¬ 
tion started. 

White elementary enrollment continued, 

1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1 958 

Number ,,.,27,967 27,702 27,209 24 t 445 22,607 20,113 

Per cent..,,+ 0.09 -0.9 -1.8 -10,2 -7,5 -11.0 

The drop from the peak (postwar) year (1949) to 1956 
was 8,583 or 30.9 per cent, 

• « • 

. , , There are only six all-white schools left. 

The scholastic standing of the , . . schools has been very 
seriously affected by the method of integration now used in 
the District of Columbia. A study of mentality and achieve¬ 
ment follows. 

RESULT OF EDUCATIONAL 
ACHIEVEMENT AND I. Q. TESTS 

For the first time in the history of the District school 
system, national standardized educational-achievement and 
1, Q. tests were given on a city-wide basis during the 1955- 
56 school term. 

After these tests were concluded, the superintendent of 
schools refused to reveal to the press and public the specific 
results of those tests. 

In refusing to disclose this information, the superintendent 
declared, '"that publicity on achievement scores between 
white and colored pupils might cause difficulties in desegre¬ 
gation, The March tests showed former all-colored schools 
for the most part lagged behind schools formerly all white/' 
He further stated that "'test statistics are easily misinter¬ 
preted and it is unlikely laymen can understand them.” 

It was only after a vociferous protest by the press, the 
public and even certain members of the board of education 
that any test-score information was made public. These test 

< 8 » 








results were not broken down by race, but were a composite 
of white and Negro students. The results, as revealed, 
showed that the students in the District of Columbia in¬ 
tegrated schools were one to two grades below the national 
norms. 

It was, accordingly, perfectly clear to the subcommittee 
that it was the intention of the board of education to con¬ 
ceal the disparity in educational achievement of the races by 
adopting a policy of not keeping statistics by race. The staff 
members, without success, sought vigorously to obtain a 
racial breakdown of these test results. 

It was observed that schools tested were indicated in the 
reports by an alphabet code. The delivery of this code 
could not have violated the policy provision of not keeping 
statistics by race. Demand was, therefore, made for this code, 
which was in due time furnished to the subcommittee. 

After this code was received, a racial breakdown of the 
schools was made by the subcommittee staff. 

* • • 

The result of these tests admittedly shocked the school 
administration. It was particularly shocking when it was dis¬ 
covered that there were a great many students, the over¬ 
whelming majority being Negro, in the senior high school, who 
could only read on the third, fourth and fifth-grade level. 

In an effort to prevent the rapid deterioration of the edu¬ 
cational advancement of the more capable students, there 
was conceived for the 1956 term of school a form of segre¬ 
gation by abilities referred to as the “four-track" plan. This 
plan was created to group the students according to ability 
to leam and was confined to the tenth grade. 

The students who are assigned to the honors program are 
the above-average students, the gifted youngsters who can 
go through a strong academic program, leading toward col¬ 
lege preparation, with special emphasis upon sciences, math¬ 
ematics and the foreign languages. 

Out of 5,193 students, 1,921 white and 3,272 colored, 
enrolled in the tenth grade, 365 students qualified in the 
first group. Of this number 315 were white students and 
50 were Negro students. 

Youngsters for this particular curriculum pattern are se¬ 
lected by their counselors and the principal of each high 
school on the basis of achievement scores in reading, arith¬ 
metic, their intelligence quotient as indicated by the tests 
used, their academic records, and the recommendations of 
teachers. 

Out of 5,099 students enrolled in the tenth grade, 1,159 
students qualified in the second group, the regular college- 
preparatory group. Of this number 803 were white students 
and 356 were Negro students. 

The third group, designated as "general curriculum," con¬ 
sisted of students who plan to go into a job or become mar¬ 
ried and do not plan to continue their education beyond 
high school. They are in the main a group not capable of 
doing regular college work. . 

Out of 5,099 students enrolled in the tenth grade, 2,^98 
students qualified in the third group. Of this number 643 
were white students and 1,453 were Negro students. 

The fourth group, designated as "basic,” was designed for 
the severely retarded students who had achieved on the 
sixth-grade level and below in arithmetic and reading. 

Out of 5,099 students enrolled in the tenth grade, 1,477 
students were placed in this group. Of this number 158 
were white students and 1,319 were Negro students. 

I 9 I 








The testimony revealed that there was a doubt as to 
whether some of the students in the second, or "regular 
college preparatory"' group, were on the tenth-grade reading 
level. It was definitely established that the third, or "general 1 ' 
group, ranged as low as the seventh-grade reading level* 
The fourth, or "basic” group, ranged from the third to sixth- 
grade reading level. 

The four-track plan was devised so as to avoid the demo¬ 
tion from high school of students who were on the third, 
fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh-grade reading level* 

A « « 

In the eighth-grade reading—word meaning-test the 
Negro students not only averaged 2 grades and 1 month 
below the eighth grade, second month, but they were 4 
grades and 1 month behind the white students. 

In the eighth-grade reading—paragraph meaning—test, 
the Negro students not only averaged 2 grades and 4 
months below the eighth grade, second month, but they 
were 4 grades and 2 months behind the white students. 

In the eighth-grade arithmetic-reasoning test, the Ne¬ 
gro students not only averaged 2 grades and 1 month be¬ 
low the eighth grade, second month, but they were 2 
grades and S months behind the white students, 

In the eighth-grade arithmetic-computation test the Ne¬ 
gro students not only averaged 2 grades and 3 months 
below the eighth grade, second month, but they were 2 
grades and 5 months behind the white students. 

The picture becomes clearer when we note the following 
breakdown: 


In the eighth-grade reading—word meaning-test, 1,973001 
of 2,995> or 65.8 per cent of the Negro students* tested, 
graded as follows: sixth grade, 531; fifth grade, 645; fourth 
grade, 653; third grade, 140; and second grade, 4. 

In the eighth-grade reading—paragraph meaning—test, 
2,161 out of 2,991, or 72.3 per cent of the Negro students 
tested, graded as follows: sixth grade, 520; fifth grade, 
538; fourth grade, 676; third grade, 385; second grade, 
40; and first grade, 2* 

In the eighth-grade arithmetic-reasoning test, 2,242 
out of 2,908, or 77J per cent, of the Negro students 
tested, graded as follows: sixth grade, 883; fifth grade, 
617; fourth grade, 633; third grade, 82; and second 
grade, 27, 

In the eighth-grade arithmetic-computation test, 2,456 
out of 3*002, or 81*8 per cent of the Negro students 
tested, graded as follows: sixth grade, 993; fifth grade, 
1019; fourth grade, 375; third grade, 67; and second 
grade, 2. 

Contentions were made during the hearings that the dispari¬ 
ty between Negro and white students in educational achieve¬ 
ment and mental ability to learn could be attributed to; 

I* Alleged low social-economic background of Negroes. 

2* Discrimination against former division II [all-Negro] 
schools, 

3, Overcrowded classrooms. 


The result of the Stanford achievement test and California 
test of mental maturity which was given to the District of 
Columbia third-grade students refutes these contentions, 

< 10 ) 


It should be noted that the third-grade students to whom 
these tests were administered were in the first grade when 
the schools of the District of Columbia were integrated. At 
the time of the tests the white and Negro students were in 
the second year of integration. 

The Stanford achievement test showed that the white 
third-grade students were on a level with the national aver¬ 
age. On the other hand, the Negro third-grade students were 
already one full grade below the national average. 

The California test of mental maturity showed that the 
white elementary students had an average I. Q. rating of 105, 
which was above the national average. The Negro elementary 
students had an average of 87, or 13 percentile below the 
national average. 

The hearings reveal that the higher the grade the wider 
is the disparity between the white and colored students in 
educational achievement and I. Q. 

These developments under the integrated program have 
caused the school administration to accelerate its program 
of grouping students according to educational achievement 
and mental ability to learn. The result is a new form of 
segregation: Instead of having a segregated school system, 
they now have segregation in different classrooms under the 
same roof. 

Integration of the schools required the lowering of educa¬ 
tional standards in order to meet the problem of teaching 
colored students who came over from the division II [for¬ 
merly all-Negro] schools totally unprepared to pursue their 
studies in the grades to which they were assigned. Many were 
not on the grade level represented and were marked satis¬ 
factory when they were not satisfactory. 

Testimony revealed that in the division II schools many 
promotions had been automatic, without regard to achieve¬ 
ment. Students were placed according to their ages, sizes 
and social maturity. 

Many children in the sixth grade could not read on the 
fourth-grade level to the extent that they could be taught 
social studies, such as geography and history. 

One principal testified that she would not be able to use 
a great many of the sixth-grade books because of the vocabu¬ 
lary of the students; that it was impossible to teach geog¬ 
raphy. Her testimony was: 

“I said I have a great many sixth-grade books that I 
won't be able to use, because of the vocabulary and, 
well, the whole setup. In fact, you are supposed to teach 
Canada and South America and that sort of thing in the 
sixth grade, and my sixth-grade teachers said, ‘Well, they 
don't know where Washington is.' And it really isn't 
funny. It is tragic. I mean, it isn't funny. They don't know 
where Washington is, and they don't know enough about 
their own country." 

The following tables give a brief view of the existing 
conditions in the District of Columbia in regard to the men¬ 
tal level and achievement of both races: 

The new Washington , D. C., 4-track plan 43 and 44 . 

[The number of white and Negro pupils in each of the 4 bracks— 
placed according to mentality, and ability; also, percentage by 
races in each track. Report of number in I0A groups by curriculum 
sequences as of June 12, 1956. Senior High School Office, June 
12, 1956] 


(H) 


















Schools Honors College General Basic Totals 

Anacostia .. 015 

White .. 48 102 260 51 461 

Negro .,.. I 20 88 45 154 

Armstrong ... 264 

White . 0 0 0 

Negro . 50 214 264 

Cardoza.*...505 

White . 0 0 0 0 

Negro . 37 192 283 505 

Coolioge ...*. 528 

White . 06 234 123 38 491 

Negro ... 2 5 12 19 38 

Dunbar .*. 335 

White .. 10 0 1 

Negro . 61 238 37 334 

Eastern ...553 

White ..*.*. 23 62 9 94 

Negro . 63 215 181 459 

McKinley .*.-.*. 401 

White ....-. 18 14 38 16 86 

Negro ...... 18 56 132 109 315 

Roosevelt .* 438 

White .*. 14 36 45 19 114 

Negro ... 12 59 107 146 324 

Spmgarn . 687 

White . 0 0 0 0 0 

Negro ... 13 47 385 242 687 

Western .*. 307 

White . 66 63 62 25 216 

Negro . 4 8 30 43 91 

Wilson ...~ 458 

White . 73 330 55 0 458 

Negro . 0 0 0 0 0 

Total ...*«., . 5,099 

White ...315 803 645 158 1,921 

Negro ..... 50 356 1,453 1,319 3,178 

Grand total.. 365 1,159 2,098 1,477 5,099 

Percentage; 

White .. -.16.4 41.8 33.6 8.2 

Negro .. 1.5 11.3 45.7 41.5 

Number of sections 38 63 57 170 

Percentage of total. 7J 22.7 41.2 29.0 


Percentage 


Percentage of white capable of taking 

college preparatory courses ..*..58.2 

Corresponding percentage of Negroes.......12.8 

Integrated group as per cent on total enrollment.....29.8 

National average based on the criteria of the 

District of Columbia plan .*.50.0 


Woift/ngton, D. C, intelligence ferir results, 19J5-55 


Grades taking tests 


American 


Council on 

Education California 

psych ological ^— m e nta t- maturit y 
examinations f tests 



12th grade 9th grade 6th grade 3d grade 


National average ..89 100 100 100 

District of Columbia 

average* ..♦.69 92 98 95 

White schools ....92,3 104 111 105 

Integrated schools ..77.7 93 98 ' 96 

Negro schools...51,6 87 89 87 

White and Negro 

difference in points.4U.7 17 22 18 


* Washington twelfth-grade students rate nationally as follows; 

(a) 25 per cent or them are in the low 6th percentile of 
United States seniors. 

(b) 50 per cent of them are below the 23d percentile of 
United States seniors, 

(c) 75 per cent of theta are below the 56th percentile. of 
United States seniors. 


In the twelfth grade, graduates from the vocational school'; 

( 12 ) 
























































were not listed* This would have lowered the District of 
Columbia average* There is quite a wide difference between 
the average intelligence in integrated schools and all-white 
schools. Unless an adequate budget is set up for this group, 
both races will fall behind* The only way mixed classes of 
low mentality can hope to progress, even slowly, is to greatly 
reduce the size of the classes; also, take special problem 
cases to special school; and provide good teachers* 

A * « 

DISCIPLINE—TRUANCY—JUVENILE 
DELINQUENCY 

Prior to the integration of the schools in the District of 
Columbia there were very few unusual disciplinary problems 
in either of the school systems. Since the integration of the 
schools there have been very few unusual disciplinary prob¬ 
lems in the predominately segregated schools. 

Disciplinary problems in the predominately integrated 
schools have been described as appalling, demoralizing, in¬ 
tolerable, and disgraceful. 

Fighting, lying, stealing, vandalism, obscene writing, vulgar 
talking, absenteeism, tardiness and truancy have increased 
to an amazing degree* 

Mental and physical suffering has affected the health and 
morale of many white teachers as a reaction to these unex* 
pected disciplinary problems that arose in the predominately 
integrated schools. 

Some white teachers have resigned, some have retired 
before the fixed date for their retirement, and some have in¬ 
dicated they will leave the school system as soon as possible 
for them to do so* 

For the first time in the history of some of the schools, 
teachers were required to police the corridors and play¬ 
grounds and cafeterias* Disorder in the classrooms greatly 
reduced teaching efficiency, and retarded the ability of 
students to leam. Police were called on numerous occa¬ 
sions to the various integrated schools. 

The overwhelming majority of those interviewed mentioned 
the following items: 

(a) Stealing: Innumerable cases were reported* Several 
courses of study or class methods were changed because 
theft removed materials and supplies so rapidly they could 
not operate* In many schools everything must be locked 
up, Often keys are stolen and articles removed* Teachers 

showed exasperation and despair at their complete help¬ 
lessness in this phase of conduct* 

(b) Lying: In some instances, both pupils and parents 
would lie when the truth would serve their purpose better* 
Truthfulness in many schools is losing ground. 

(c) Cheating: Instances of cheating since integration 
have increased* 

(d) Fighting: An unusually large number of fights 
have occurred on the grounds, pirridors, and often in the 
classrooms. Weapons have been taken away from pupils 
on numerous occasions. Serious fights were reported be¬ 
tween whites and Negroes* 

(e) Vandalism: Wanton destruction of property has in¬ 
creased since integration. Teachers and principals told of 
the contrast before and after integration. 

(f) Obscene language: The vilest sex talk, dirty writing 
on the walls, foul and unspeakable language to teachers, 
and vicious and obscene tongue battles in classrooms, as 

t 13 > 










well as during recess, seem to occur often, enough to be 
a major handicap to a teaming situation, as well us to cul¬ 
tural development. 

V * « 

The all-white and all-Negro schools reported little or no 
change in the problems of discipline in their schools. An in¬ 
crease of exasperating cases of discipline is a development 
in integrated schools of the city* 


SOCIAL ACTIVITY, SEX PROBLEMS, 

AND DISEASE 

The curtailment of normal social activities and the surpris¬ 
ing sex problems were part of the price the people of the 
District of Columbia paid for an integrated school system. 

One of the dangerous and deplorable developments in the 
District of Columbia schools is the sex attitude of the Negro- 
even down into the lower elementary grades. The fact that 13 
little Negro girls—6 years old and under—were treated for 
gonorrhea in 1955 is only a sample of the sex attitude found 
in the District of Columbia today. 

Teachers in the integrated schools reported deplorable con¬ 
ditions in sex contacts in their schools. Reports of attempted 
rape, assaults, chasing girls and even teachers, Negro girls 
soliciting hoys at school, sex talk, and suggestive talking 
and attempted fondling of white girls, and innumerable 
sex affronts were reported by the school personnel that was 
interviewed. 

Illegitimate children bom to 15-year-old girls increased 42 
per cent during the first year of integration over the previous 
year. Very few whites were involved. The increase for girls 
under 15 years of age was 23 per cent. 

The Department of Health reported 854 cases of gonorrhea 
alone among school children in 1955—97.8 per cent were 
Negroes. 

The following tables will show more clearly the situation 
confronting the school administration: 



Number of coses of venereal diseases reported, by color and 
diagnosis, fiscal year 1955 

Diagnosis White Colored 

Total syphilis.*......368 2,195 

Gonorrhea ........*..271 10,243 

Chancroid .*.* 4 91 

Lymphogranuloma venereum... 3 68 

Granuloma inguinale.*. 0 24 

Venereal diseases, total.......,...646 12,621 

SOURCE: District of Columbia Department of Public Health, 

a a a 

/Megrt/mate births 

Per cent 
nonwhite 
births that 
Per cent are. iUe- 

Year Total White Non white nonwhite gitimate 

1945 1,954 483 1,471 75 25 

1946 2,192 563 1,629 74 23 

1947 2,249 523 1,717 77 21 

1948 2,628 525 2,103 80 23 

1949 2,424 417 2,007 81 22 

1950 2,801 505 2,296 82 23 

1951 3,068 552 2,516 82 24 

1952 3,395 591 2,804 83 26 

1953 3,669 620 3,049 S3 25.5 

1954 3,745 617 3,128 84 26 

SOURCE: District of Columbia Department of Public Health, 
Biostatistics and Health, Education Division. 

114 ) 











Quoting Howard West on ringworm of the scalp, 1955: 
“There were 1,664 new cases, of which 124 were white and 
1,540 nonwhite; The non white cases represented 92.5 per 
cent of the total. 


THE OVERCROWDING—CLASS SIZE 

The District of Columbia school officials constantly referred 
to overcrowding in buildings and large classes as a cause of 
low achievement* However, the Washington Negros class 
load improved during the war years, and was lower in 
1953-54 than in 1939-40* This is true of elementary, junior 
and senior high schools. 

The claims regarding lack of space are not borne out by the 
facts. The records submitted give the following information; 

The city transferred 20 white schools to Negroes, 1946 to 1953 
pupil capacity—10,770 

27 new Negro buildings were constructed 4 adding punjj capacity 
—14,270 

9 Negro buildings were under construction prior to September, 
1954, adding pupil capacity—5,022 

Total additional Negro pupils 1 desks in use, or in sight after 
1946 and before September, 1954, were-30,062 

Negro enrollment; 

1946-47 1953-54 

Elementary- 25.963 37,586 

Junior high school- 8,633 13*257 

Senior high school- 4,666 5 729 

Total- 39,262 56^74 

Total Negro growth (1946-53), elementary, junior and senior 
schools—17,312 

With 25,000 additional desks in use and 5,000 more in 
sight, and an increase of only 17,312 pupils, the crowded 
conditions and lack of assigned Negro teachers needs full ex¬ 
planation and investigation. Data to explain this situation is 
lacking* 

FINANCES 

The difficulties being encountered in the District of Co¬ 
lumbia public schools cannot be attributed to the lack of 
finances. 

Appropriations for school operation and capital improve¬ 
ment, as well as salaries paid to teachers, were far in excess 
of the overwhelming majority of school districts in the United 
States, and also very respectable when compared with the 
school districts much larger than Washington. 

The United States Department of Health, Education and 
Welfare revealed the following for the year 1954-55: 

Washington, with 95,000 students in average daily attend¬ 
ance, spent $1*71 per pupil per day, or $307.80 per year* 

Neighboring Baltimore, with 133,122 students in average 
daily attendance, spent $1.45 per pupil per day, or $269.70 
per year* 

Philadelphia, with 202,822 students in average daily at¬ 
tendance, spent $1.72 per pupil per day, or $323.37 per year* 

Detroit, with 239,226 students in average daily attendance, 
spent $1.73 per pupil per day, or $321.78 per year. 

Cleveland, with 105,759 students in average daily attend¬ 
ance, spent $1.75 per pupil per day, or $322 per year. 

Houston, with 117,000 students in average daily attend¬ 
ance, spent $1*27 per pupil per day or $222.25 per year. 

Dallas, with 81,264 students in average daily attendance, 
spent $1*33 per pupil, or $236*74 per year. 






tion of the schools has been of little .or no benefit to either 
race. The morale of some has been shattered, their health 
has been impaired, and some have separated themselves 
from the school system by resignation and early retirement. 
The replacement of these teachers presents a very serious 
problem to the District schools because white-teacher applica¬ 
tions have declined materially. 

6. Discipline problems and delinquency resulting from the 
integration of the schools have been appalling. It was un¬ 
expected and came as a great shock. 

While there were no new discipline problems in the schools 
that were not materially integrated, the unpreparedness for 
ihe turmoil that ensued disrupted the orderly administration 
of the predominantly integrated schools. 

This condition had a very pronounced effect in retarding 
the educational progress of the students. 

A continuation of this situation will ultimately destroy the 
effectiveness of teaching in the integrated schools. 

7. Sex problems in the predominantly integrated schools 
have become a matter of vital concern to the parents. 

One out of every four Negro children born in the District 
of Columbia is illegitimate. 

The number of cases of venereal disease among Negroes 
of school age has been found to be astounding and tragic. 

The Negro has demonstrated a sex attitude from the 
primary to high-school grades that has greatly alarmed 
white parents and is a contributing cause of the exodus of 
the white residents of the District of Columbia. 

The integrated schools have found it necessary to curtail 
greatly, and in many cases eliminate completely, social ac¬ 
tivities formerly considered a vital element in the education 
of students in the segregated schools. 

8. The operation and maintenance of the District schools 
have been more adequately financed than the average school 
system. From this standpoint they compare favorably with 
the outstanding school systems in the nation. The teachers’ 
salary scale is among the highest. 

The two years’ experience with the operation of the inte¬ 
grated District school system has conclusively shown that the 
cost of operating the integrated schools will be substantial¬ 
ly increased. 

Requests for additional funds by the school administration 
and the increased budget and capital outlay substantiate 
this finding. 

These demands are being made in the light of the fact 
that the total school population has not materially increased 
in the past three years. 

9. On the average, the Negro students, because of limited 
achievements, are unable to compete scholastically with the 
more advanced white students. This condition imposes upon 
the slower students a psychological barrier denoting inferi¬ 
ority, and manifests itself in social misbehavior. 

10. The committee concludes that the integrated school 
system of the District of Columbia is not a model to be 
copied by other communities in the United States. On the 
contrary, it finds that the integrated school system in the 
District of Columbia cannot be copied by those who seek an 
orderly and successful school operation. 

Pursuant to the above-mentioned findings, the subcom¬ 
mittee recommends that legislation be enacted to accom¬ 
plish— 


( 17 > 






1. Liberalization of present student-transfer policies in or¬ 
der to permit children to be moved from one school to an¬ 
other in accordance with the needs of the child and the 
desires of the parents. 

2. The creation of separate continuation and trade schools 
for pupils of low mental ability incapable of achieving at 
the high-school level. 

3. The establishment of separate schools, with adequately 
trained personnel, for die housing and teaching of atypical 
students. 

4. The establishment of a separate training school for the 
housing and teaching of chronic delinquents and incorri¬ 
gible students. 

5. Modification of the present school-attendance laws, so 
as to confer upon school officials greater latitude in their 
authority to deal with individual problem cases. 

6. The maintenance of records, statistical data and other 
official information relating to the operation of the District 
of Columbia schools by sex and race. 

7. The creation of a high-standard, city-wide technical 
high school. 

8. Conversion of the District of Columbia Teachers Col- 
lege to a two-year junior college. 

9. The employment of competent and capable teachers 
to be restricted to applicants who have successfully passed 
the national teachers' examination. 

10. A method by which members of the board of educa¬ 
tion may be removed from their positions for cause, 

Some Committee Members 
Say: Return to Segregation 

Following is full text of "additional views" filed as a sup¬ 
plement to the report and signed by four members; 

We believe that the recommendations contained in the sub¬ 
committee report, if enacted, would serve to improve public- 
school education in the District of Columbia; however, on the 
basis of information furnished the subcommittee during the 
hearings, we are of the opinion that the act of integrating the 
former division I and division II schools has seriously damaged 
the public-school system in the District of Columbia. 

The evidence taken as a whole .points to a definite im¬ 
pairment of educational opportunities for members of both 
white and Negro races as a result of integration with little 
prospect of remedy in the future. 

Therefore, we recommend that racially separate public 
schools be re-established for the education of white and Ne¬ 
gro pupils in the District of Columbia, and that such schools 
be maintained on a completely separate and equal basis. 

James C. Davis 
.-—“John Bell Williams 
Woodrow W, Jones 
<■— - Joel T. Bboyhill 


( 18 ) 













for further information 


WRITE TO THE 
EDUCATIONAL FUND OF THE 

CITIZENS’ COUNCILS 

Greenwood, Miss. 


READ AND PASS ON 



WE NEED YOUR HELP 

We hope you can make a contribution to the 
Educational Fund which will be used to 

(1) Publish and distribute nationwide factual litera¬ 
ture presenting the case for states' rights and 
racial integrity. 

(2) Initiate a movement to enter the national propa¬ 
ganda media such as the national press services* 
television* radio* national publications and the 
motion picture industry. 

Our auditors believe contributions will be deduc¬ 
tible from your income tax. Every effort will be made 
to get this tax-free status, and we believe these efforts 
wiU be successful. 


I 

i 

f 














Second Putnam 
Letter Cuts Root 
oi Integration 
Fallacy 



A Letter To 

THE ATTORNEY GENERAL 
of 

THE UNITED STATES 
By CARLETON PUTNAM 


Carleton Putnam is a member of the 
famous New England Putnam family, a t 
native of New York City, a graduate of j 
Princeton and Columbia, founder and i 
president of Chicago and Southern Air- ] 
lines (1933*1948). and is on the board of 
Pelta Airlines. He recently published a 
widely-praised biography of Theodore [ 
Roosevelt 


71444 


March 16, 1959 


The Honorable William P. Rogers 
Attorney General of the United States 
Department of Justice 
Washington 25, D. C. 

My dear Mr. Attorney General: 

Following my correspondence with your 
Department in December, I have had a chance 
to review your briefs in the school desegrega¬ 
tion cases and also to scan, as carefully as 
time permitted, the nine relevant volumes 
of the Supreme Court’s Records and Briefs. 
I hesitate to impose further upon your kind¬ 
ness, but my survey has left one question in 
my mind upon which the record does not ap¬ 
pear to touch, and which you may be able 
to answer. 

I turn to you for the reason that, as a 
non-adversary party to these proceedings, I 
understand you to have represented the peo¬ 
ple of the United States. Since a majority 
of the population of the South are obviously 
against integration, and since the Gallup Poll 
for September 24, 1958, indicates that SS% 
of the white population of the North would 
not put their children in schools where more 
than half the enrollment is Negro, it becomes 
a close question whether the decision of the 
Supreme Court in these cases was not in fact 
contrary to the wishes of a national majority. 
While I recognize that this would in no 
way affect the validity of the decision, it 
would seem to have placed a peculiar respon¬ 
sibility upon you. 

The matter which I find curious is the 
omission in your briefs of any challenge 
to the authorities cited by the Court in Foot¬ 
note 11 to their opinion of May 17, 1954. 1 
assume there must have been some indi¬ 
cation, in argument or elsewhere, that these 
authorities were to be used. They appear, in 
large measure, to form the foundation of the 
decision. They reflect a point of view rooted 
in what I may call modern equalitarian an- 

m 






thropology — a school which holds that all 
races are currently equal in their capacity for 
culture, and that existing inequalities of sta- 
tus are due solely to inequalities of opportun¬ 
ity. While the briefs for the State of Virginia 
touch upon the qualifications of some of the 
individual psychologists who testified in the 
lower courts, they contain no examination of 
the underlying anthropological theory. It 
seems to me that such an examination should 
have been made. I have a science degree, I 
have read with some diligence in the field 
of anthropology and I have discussed the 
subject with competent anthropologists. It 
is my considered opinion that two genera¬ 
tions of Americans have been victimized by 
a psuedo-scientific hoax in this field, that 
this hoax is part of an equalitarian propa¬ 
ganda typical of the left-wing overdrift of 
our times, and that it will not stand an in¬ 
formed judicial test. I do not believe that 
ever before has science been more warped 
by a self-serving few to the deception and 
injury of so many. On this subject there may 
be disagreement. But it is clear to me the 
Court should have been invited to examine 
the question. 

Allow me to give my reasons for this 
opinion. The Court says in Footnote 11 “see 
generally Myrdal, An American Dilemma,” 
and I start with this book. I need hardly 
dwell upon the highly socialistic bias of its 
foreign author, and the startling remarks 
with which his text is peppered, such as his 
comment that the American Constitution “is 
in many respects impractical and ill-suited 
for modern conditions,” that the Constitu¬ 
tional Convention of 1787 “was nearly a plot 
against the common people” and that in the 
conflict between liberty and equality in the 
United States, “equality is slowly winning.” 
A foreign socialist could not, perhaps, have 
realized that Jefferson’s statement “all men 
are created equal” was a corruption from the 
Virginia Declaration of Rights, where the 

[21 



original wording read “all men are created 
equally free/' nor that if equality (in any 
sense other than equality of opportunity and 
equality before the law) is defeating liberty 
in the United States, then everything Ameri¬ 
ca has stood for is in jeopardy, but certainly 
it was essential that these matters be called 
to the Court’s attention in evaluating Myr- 
dal’s book. 

I hasten, however, to the basic hypothesis 
underlying Myrdal’s 1400 pages. On pages 
90*91 he introduces the doctrines of Franz 
Boas, a foreign-born Columbia University 
professor who arrived in the United States 
in 1886, who was himself a member of a racial 
minority group, and who may be called the 
father of equalitarian anthropology in Ameri¬ 
ca. From these pages forward, Myrdal’s Di¬ 
lemma is founded upon the philosophy of 
Boas and his disciples. Thereafter, one con¬ 
stantly finds in Myrdal such sentences as 
these: 

“The last two or three decades have seen 
a veritable revolution in scientific 
thought on the racial characteristics of 
the Negro. ... By inventing and apply¬ 
ing ingenious specialized research meth¬ 
ods, the popular race dogma (that races 
are not by nature equal in their capacity 
for culture) is being victoriously pur¬ 
sued into every corner and effectively 
exposed as fallacious or at least unsub¬ 
stantiated. ... It is now becoming diffi¬ 
cult for even popular writers to express 
other views than the ones of racial equali- 
tarianism and still retain intellectual re¬ 
spect." 

If you have not already read him, I in¬ 
vite you to a thorough and impartial study 
of Boas. I am confident you will find his 
views wholly unconvincing, his doctrines 
more “unsubstantiated" than those he attacks, 
and his approach so saturated with wishful 
thinking as to be pathetic. In even the most 
superficial analysis of the subject, Boas 

[31 








should have been challenged and his more 
obvious errors exposed. Boas, for example, 
may have been convinced that the average 
African's improvident indifference to “to* 
morrow” is just a healthy “optimism”, but I 
dare say the proverbial reasonable man on a 
jury would think of it less charitably. 

If the deceptions of the Boas school were 
unconscious, they were nevertheless serious. 
People, for instance, were induced to believe 
that because early anthropologists put empha- 
sis on brain pan size in their studies of race, 
and brain pan size was later proved to be an 
invalid criterion, this automatically made all 
races equal. No one took the time to point 
out that not only is brain pan size not a final 
test of intelligence, but that, even if it were, 
equal brain size would not prove equal capa¬ 
city for civilization. The character-intelli¬ 
gence index — the combination of intelli¬ 
gence with all the qualities that go under the 
name of character, including especially the 
willingness to resist rather than to appease 
evil — forms the only possible index of the 
capacity for civilization as Western Euro¬ 
peans know it, and there is no test for this 
index save in observing the native culture 
in which it results. Such observation does 
not sustain the doctrine of equality. 

Indeed, the entire foundation of the Boas 
theory rests on sand. It is based on the as¬ 
sumption that present day cultural differ¬ 
ences between the Negro and other races 
are due, not to any natural limitations, but 
to isolation and historical accident. This 
theme has been taken up again and again by 
later anthropologists, such as Kluckhohn of 
Harvard, and repeated as established scien¬ 
tific fact. I may illustrate the argument by 
comparing the condition of the white tribes 
of Northern Europe just before the fall of 
Rome with the Negro tribes in the Congo. 
Both were primitive and barbaric, both were 
isolated from civilization. With the conquest 
of Rome by the white barbarians, the north- 







ern tribes were brought in contact with the 
ancient Greco-Roman civilization and gradu¬ 
ally absorbed its culture. The Negro, on the 
other hand, lacked such a contact and there¬ 
fore remained in statu quo. 

This was Boas’ historical accident, and 
his explanation of the Negro’s present level 
of civilization in Africa. Boas had various 
additional points and refinements of his 
thesis, such as the advantage the white bar¬ 
barians enjoyed in contiguity of habitat and 
the more moderate differences in modes of 
manufacture in earlier times, which made it 
easier for backward peoples in those days to 
compete commercially with more advanced 
cultures than was the case in later centuries 
when our white civilization invaded Africa, 
but these arguments hang on the first point. 
In other words, had the Negroes shown the 
enterprise and initiative of the white bar¬ 
barians, the Negroes themselves would have 
established a contiguity of habitat and had 
the advantage of more moderate differences 
in modes of manufacture. 

As far as isolation is concerned, it hardly 
seems necessary to point out that the Alps 
did not keep the white barbarians out of 
Italy, and that the Nile Valley was open to 
the Negroes into Egypt. One observer, re¬ 
cently returned from an intensive tour of 
Africa and himself apparently a racial equali- 
tarian, nevertheless feels compelled to in¬ 
clude these sentences in his report: 

“Why, when in China, India, Mesopo¬ 
tamia and on the Mediterranean coasts 
and islands, men isolated almost com¬ 
pletely from one another, during some 
5,000 years independently developed 
writing and metal tools, invented com¬ 
passes, built temples and bridges, formu¬ 
lated philosophies, wrote books and 
poems — why, then, did similar progress 
not occur in Africa? 

“I posed the question to many Africans. 
Their answer: the desert, the heat, dis- 


[51 







ease, isolation — and always these words: 
'For centuries our most vigorous young 
men were taken off as slaves/ 

“The answer falls short. China has a 
desert; India’s climate is as hot and as 
unhealthy; Mesopotamia indeed is hotter 
— and was surrounded by deserts. As for 
the slave trade, why were the Africans 
not making slaves of the Portuguese and 
the Arabs?” 

This report, prepared by the assistant to 
the publisher of “Time" magazine, goes on 
to seek justification for the equalitarian 
viewpoint In the modern intelligence test 
and the modern performance of the excep¬ 
tional Negro, answers which fall as far short 
as the others. The field of the intelligence 
test, like the field of Boas' anthropology, is 
filled with wishful thinking, with compari¬ 
sons of the better Negroes and the poorer 
whites, with studies of mulattoes whose suc¬ 
cesses are largely proportionate to the ad¬ 
mixture of white genes, and with similar 
avoidance of the essential point, namely, that 
in matters of race either the average of one 
must be compared with the average of the 
other, or the best of one must be compared 
with the best of the other. 

If we are to compare averages, there is 
probably no better laboratory than the rural 
area around Chatham, Ontario, Canada. Chat¬ 
ham is a town at the northern end of the pre- 
Civil War “underground railroad” where a 
community of the descendants of escaped 
slaves has existed for 100 years. The social 
and economic situation of Negroes and whites 
in the rural area around Chatham is approxi¬ 
mately equal. The schools have always been 
integrated, yet the tests of Negroes in these 
rural schools show them, after 100 years, to 
be as far below the whites in the same schools 
as the Negroes in the schools of the South 
are below the whites in the schools of the 
South. Dr, H. A. Tanser, now Superintendent 
of Schools at Chatham, published a study of 

[63 






this matter in 1939. The study is never men¬ 
tioned by the modern school of equalitarian 
anthropology, but you will find it in the Li¬ 
brary of Congress. Did your Department give 
it consideration? 

In this connection, you are perhaps 
aware that Dr. Audrey M. Shuey, Chairman 
of the Department of Psychology at Ran- 
dolph-Macon Woman’s College, published a 
report in 1958 surveying and summarising 
the results of 40 years of intelligence tests 
involving whites and Negroes. Dr. Shuey 
took her B.A. at the University of Illinois, 
her M.A. at Wellesley, and her Ph. D. at 
Columbia. Her book contains a foreword by 
Dr. Henry E. Garrett who was formerly 
president of the American Psychological 
Association, the Eastern Psychological As¬ 
sociation, the New York State Association 
of Applied Psychology and the Psychomatic 
Society. In his foreword. Dr. Garrett says: 
“Dr. Shuey finds that at several age 
levels and under a variety of conditions, 
Negroes regularly score below whites. 
There is, to be sure, an overlapping of 
scores, a number of Negroes scoring 
above the white medians. This overlap 
means that many individual Negroes 
achieve high scores on the tests. But the 
mean differences persist. Dr. Shuey con¬ 
cludes that the regularity and consist¬ 
ency of the results strongly imply a 
racial basis for these differences. I be¬ 
lieve that the weight of evidence sup¬ 
ports her conclusion.” 

Dr. Shuey states that “the remarkable 
consistency of test results ... all point to the 
presence of some native differences between 
Negroes and whites determined by intelli¬ 
gence tests*\ and she adds the significant 
comment: “The tendency for the IQ's of 
colored children to become progressively 
lower with increase in age has been reported 
by a number of investigators who tested Ne¬ 
gro children. .. . One is confronted with the 


171 



probability of a continuance during adoles¬ 
cence of what seems to be a widening gap 
between the races.” I recognize that Dr* 
Shuey’s report was not extant at the time of 
the Brown decision, but a large part of her 
material was available, and in my opinion 
should have been submitted to the Court. I 
repeat that I do not consider the intelligence 
test decisive, as I believe character to be 
more important than intelligence, but in 
answer to those who use the intelligence test 
to support theories of racial equality, surely ' 
Tanser’s and Shuey’s material belonged in 
the record. j 

If, on the other hand, we compare the 
best with the best, the discrepancies are even 
clearer. I had occasion to ask Kluckhohn a 
question with respect to a statement in his 
Mirror for Man at page 126. This statement 
reads: "It is true that the total richness of 
Negro civilizations is at least quantitatively 
less impressive than that of Western or Chi¬ 
nese civilization.” (Emphasis mine.) I asked 
Kluckhohn if he would mind defining in 
what respects he found it qualitatively as 
impressive. I told him I was curious as to one 
poem equal to Milton’s Paradise Lost, one 
history equal to Gibbon’s Decline and Fall, 
one novel equal to Dicken’s David Copper - 
field, one playwright equal to Shakespeare, 
one philosopher equal to Aristotle, one medi¬ 
cal discovery equal to Salk’s polio vaccine, 
one military leader equal to Napoleon, one 
inventor equal to Edison, one physicist equal 
to Einstein, one pioneer equal to Columbus, 
one statesman equal to Lincoln, one com¬ 
poser equal to Beethoven, one painter equal 
to Rembrandt. I have received no reply, but 
Kluckhohn’s "at least quantitatively" seems to 
me typical of the deceptive words used by 
our modern equalitarian anthropology. The 
Court should not have been left in the dark 
on this tendency. Although they do not spe¬ 
cifically cite Kluckhohn, he is one of the 
leaders of the modern school on which Myr- 
dal rests his case. 


[81 




I have found that a favorite method 
used by Boas and fCluckhohn for throwing 
dust in the eyes of the public is to create an 
impression that there is really no such thing 
as race. Although Kluckhohn begins the 
third paragraph of the fifth chapter of his 
Mirror for Man with the sentence "There are 
undoubtedly human races/' he nevertheless 
entitles this chapter "Race; A Modern 
Myth." His thesis is that culture, not race, 
is what makes human beings what they are. 
Yet nowhere is the obvious fact examined 
that culture is absorbed, refined and ad¬ 
vanced in proportion to racial capacity, 
There are, of course, certain modifying vari¬ 
ables, among the chief of which are climate 
and economic conditions, The white culture 
of New England differs from the white cul¬ 
ture of the Deep South, but not as much as 
the white culture of Southern Florida differs 
from the black culture of Haiti, where the 
climate is approximately the same. That is to 
say, the effect of the variables is clearly less 
decisive than the fundamental difference in 
race. 

Undoubtedly an individual or group, 
taken out of the cultural environment of 
their own race and brought up in that of 
another, will sometimes absorb some features 
of the culture of the new environment, but 
in such instances they become parasites upon 
the culture of the second race. They are car¬ 
ried up, or carried down, as the case may be, 
by the overwhelming impact of the environ¬ 
ment of the second race. Their own capacity 
to contribute to, and to sustain, a culture 
can only be judged by the performance of 
their own race in its native habitat. And if 
that capacity is low, then too many of them, 
too freely integrated, must inevitably in the 
long run lower the culture of the second race. 

There have, not unnaturally, been situ¬ 
ations in which a race has captured the spark 
of culture in one habitat but not in another. 
In the case of the fall of the Roman Empire, 


[03 













the barbarians were, broadly speaking, mem¬ 
bers of the same race as the conquered. Here 
we find two branches of the white race, one 
of which had produced a culture while the 
other had not, and here the Boas theory of 
historical accident is tenable. Similarity of 
tinder permitted passage of the spark. It was 
still the white race that absorbed, and eventu¬ 
ally carried forward, the Roman culture. 

The essential question in this whole 
controversy is whether the Negro, given ev¬ 
ery conceivable help regardless of cost to 
the whites, is capable of full adaptation to 
our white civilization within a matter of a 
few generations, or whether the record in¬ 
dicates such adaptation cannot be expected 
save in terms of many hundreds, if not 
thousands, of years, and that complete in¬ 
tegration of these races, especially in the 
heavy black belts of the South, can result 
only in a parasitic deterioration of white cul¬ 
ture, with or without genocide. I am certain 
neither you nor the Court, nor any signifi¬ 
cant number of Northerners would knowing¬ 
ly shackle upon their racial brothers in the 
South against their will a system which 
would produce either of the latter results. 
The sin of Cain would pale by comparison. 

Yet to my mind it seems obvious that 
all the facts, and a preponderance of theory, 
are against Myrdal and his authorities. I 
would go so far as to say that in the last 
fifty years anthropology has been drafted to 
serve the demi-Goddess of Equalitarianism 
instead of the Goddess of Truth, and the 
modern school in this field has a stern judg¬ 
ment to face, both at the bar of American 
public opinion and at the hands of two gen¬ 
erations of youth whose thinking has been 
corrupted by it. One does not build a healthy 
society on error. One faces the truth, and 
deals with it as best one can. 

I pass now from Myrdal, and the sources 
upon which his more general assumptions 
rest, to the remaining authorities cited in 

(101 





Footnote 11. All of these deal primarily with 
the adverse psychological effect of segre- 
gation upon Negroes and only secondarily 
with its alleged adverse effect upon white 
children. Nowhere is any study cited of a 
third question, namely, of the quite possible 
adverse effect of integration upon whites in 
schools with large percentages of Negroes. 
Was any such study made and presented to 
the Court? 

The third question was well put by Wil¬ 
liam Polk in his book Southern Accent: “If 
the Negro is entitled to lift himself up by 
enforced association with the white man, 
why should not the white man be entitled 
to prevent himself from being pulled down 
by enforced association with the Negro?" 
This question seems particularly important 
in view of the patent partiality of the au¬ 
thorities cited in favor of integration. The 
majority of these appear either to belong 
to Negro or other minority groups, or to 
have prepared their studies under the aus¬ 
pices of such groups. To expect these groups 
to present impartial reports on the subject 
of racial discrimination is like expecting a 
saloon keeper to prepare an impartial study 
on prohibition or a meat packer to pass an 
unbiased judgment an the Humane Slaughter 
Bill. Their point of view is important and 
deserves consideration. Many of them are 
brilliant and consecrated men. But to per¬ 
mit them to provide the overwhelming pre¬ 
ponderance of the evidence is manifestly not 
justice. If this is compounded by an absence 
of any consideration of the damaging effect 
of integration upon white children, it be¬ 
comes doubly serious. While the brief for 
the State of Virginia touches upon the sub¬ 
ject, it seems to me that the people of the 
United States, whom you represented, had 
a particular interest in seeing it more fully 
developed. I would appreciate your direct¬ 
ing me to such a study, if one was made, 
and also your providing me with some ex¬ 
planation as to why the evidence on damage 

[Ill 











to the Negro was from such partisan sources. 

Any American worthy of the name feels 
an obligation of kindness and justice toward 
his fellow man. He is willing to give every 
individual his chance, whatever his race, but 
in those circumstances where a race must be 
dealt with as a race, he realizes that the 
level of the average must be controlling, and 
that the relatively minor handicap upon the 
superior individual of the segregated race, 
if it be a handicap at all, must be accepted 
until the average has reached the point where 
the desire for association is mutual. 

This leads me t.o my final query, I will 
be frank to say that I was startled at the 
uncritical manner in which the Supreme 
Court was allowed to accept one phrase in 
the language of the lower court, to-wit: “A 
sense of inferiority (produced by segrega- 
tion) affects the motivation of a child to 
learn." Did neither you nor counsel for any 
of the appellees take occasion to point .out 
that if a child is by nature inferior, enforced 
association with his superiors will increase 
his realization of his inferiority, while if 
he is by nature not inferior, any implication 
of inferiority in segregation, if such there 
be, will only serve as a spur to greater ef¬ 
fort? Throughout history,, challenges of 
this sort, acting upon individuals, groups 
and races of natural capacity, have proved 
a whip to achievement, times without num¬ 
ber. The point was one of the legal hinges 
on which the case turned. In fact without it 
the decision falls apart, for there is no other 
even remotely arguable excuse why separate 
facilities cannot be made equal within any 
possible stretch, of the meaning of the Four¬ 
teenth Amendment. Consequently, I would 
have thought it imperative that you raise it. 

Sincerely yours, 

/s/ Carleton Putnam 

cc: The President 

The Members of the Supreme Court 

[121 





The first Putnam letter has reached a 
circulation of over six million in Northern 
newspapers as a result of public contribu¬ 
tions to run it as an advertisement. If you 
would like to see this second letter achieve 
the same wide readership in the North 
please send your contribution to: 

Putnam Letter Committee 
317 North 29th Street 
Birmingham 3, Alabama 



(131 














FOR FURTHER INFORMATION 


WRITE TO THE 


EDUCATIONAL FUND OF THE 

CITIZENS’ COUNCILS 

Greenwood, Miss. 


READ AND PASS ON 


‘^S-RAC^ 


WE NEED YOUR HELP 

We hope you can make a contribution to the 
Educational Fund which will be used to 

(1) Publish and distribute nationwide factual 
literature presenting the case for states’ rights 
and racial integrity. 

(2) Initiate a movement to enter the national 
propaganda media such as the national press 
services, television, radio, national publica¬ 
tions and the motion picture industry. 

Our auditors believe contributions will be de¬ 
ductible from your income tax. Every effort will 
be made to get this tax-free status, and we believe 
these efforts will be successful. 









P 0*340 <REV. 


(ADDRESS OH CONTRIBUTOR) 


To Be Returned 








A 

Jewish View 
on 

Segregation 



PUBLISHER'S NOTE: This article is en¬ 
tirely voluntary by a Jewish Southerner 
who prefers to remain anonymous for the 
simple reason that the people who will 
agree with what he has to say or be tol¬ 
erant of it, will remain silent; the cranks 
and crackpots who will wish to revile him 
for his right to form his owrv beliefs and 
act upon them will not remain silent, The 
author is unwilling to subject his family 
to abuse from such quarters. Any persons 
wishing to communicate with him can do 
so in care of: The Association of Citi¬ 
zens' Councils of Mississippi, 201 West 
Market Street, Greenwood, Mississippi. 









* TT^vEDlCATED to the maintenance of peace, 
/ 1 good order and domestic trgg^uiUty in 
our community and in our State, and to 
the preservation of our States? Rights." On this 
magnificent motto stands the Association of 
Citizens’ Councils of Mississippi. 


What makes one Jew a better Jew than an¬ 
other Jew? Is a rich Jew a “better” Jew than 
a poor one? Is a Republican Jew a better Jew 
than a Democratic Jew? Is a Northern Jew a 
better Jew than a Southern one—or an Eastern 
Jew better than a Western one? Is an Ameri¬ 
can Jew a better Jew than a French, or Engliah, 
or Polish, or Russian Jew? Is a Jew who ad¬ 
vocates integregation better than one who fa¬ 
vors segregation? Or vice versa? 


We Jews are so subject to the hurts and 
humiliations of the generalties uttered as truths 
or facts by the non-Jews that it is unthinkable 
that we should be willing to generalize about 
each other. What Jew living anywhere, any¬ 
time in the more than 5000 years of our history 
has not smarted under such as this: “Jews are 
lucky.” “All Jews stick together.” “All Jews 
are rich.” The expression “Jew him down” is 
understood and used from one end of this coun¬ 
try to another. Yet, every Jew knows he is an 
individual. Not richer or poorer or luckier or 
unluckier or greedier or more open-handed be¬ 
cause he is a,Jew, but because of the sort of an 
individual he, personally, is. The sort of in¬ 
dividual he is depends in large measure on his 
background, his family, his culture, his educa¬ 
tion, his social and economic status, the com¬ 
munity in which he lives and other environ¬ 
mental considerations. 


I, personally, am a “Jewish Southerner,” not 
a Southern Jew. I am also a “Jewish American,” 
not an American Jew. I was born and reared in 
Mississippi, educated here and in the neighbor¬ 
ing State of Alabama. Lest you be tempted to 
indulge in a “generalization” at this point on 


[31 








Mississippians and their total ignorance and 
lack of education, let me make a statement of 
statistical fact. THERE ARE MORE COL¬ 
LEGE GRADUATES PER CAPITA AMONG 
THE WHITE POPULATION OF MISSIS¬ 
SIPPI THAN IN ANY OTHER STATE IN 
THE UNION. In case you are interested in 
another less vital fact, there are also more 
Cadillacs per capita in Mississippi than in any 
other State. I do not happen to own one. Many 
negro citizens in Mississippi do. 

As a Jewish Southerner, I objected, and still 
do object, to the stand taken by national (?) 
Jewish organizations, and most particularly 
B’nai B’rith and the Anti-Defamation League 
of B’nai B’rith, in connection with the segre¬ 
gation decision. I accord every person in Amer¬ 
ica, Jew or non-Jew, colored or white, the right 
to form an opinion on this controversial subject 
and to express it. That is the American way. 
While I may disagree violently with your opin¬ 
ion, I will defend your right to express it—as 
an individual. But, with an organization, espe¬ 
cially a national organization, there is a dif¬ 
ference. 

National Jewish organizations such as B’nai 
B’rith and the American Jewish Congress, and 
others, each purport to speak for all American 
Jewry. Each is constantly striving to give the 
impression that that particular organization 
speaks for all Jews in the United States, regard¬ 
less of locality. Nothing—nothing could be fur¬ 
ther from the truth. Most of these so-called 
National Jewish organizations have no Southern 
Jewish membership whatsoever. I doubt wheth¬ 
er the strongest of these groups from the stand¬ 
point of Southern membership, the B’nai B’rith, 
can lay valid claim to. having in membership a 
majority of Southern Jews. 

When the Anti-Defamation League of B’nai 
B'rith took the position it did in filing a brief 
as a friend of the court, urging that segregation 



in public schools be ruled unconstitutional, the 
organization did so in the name of American 
Jewry, including Southerners. I find it hard, 
if not impossible, to believe that 100 per cent, 
of these Southerners, just because they are 
Jews, subscribed to or in any way encouraged 
or even condoned the stand taken by B’nai 
B'rith on the segregation issue. 

The same thing happened to Southern Chris¬ 
tians—both Catholic and Protestant. They, too, 
are refusing to '‘go along” with what they con¬ 
sider unrepresentative national action by their 
church groups. 

The thinking of the leaders of Jewish or¬ 
ganizations is fairly clear to me. They surely 
feel that since Jews have always and will always 
be a "minority” group, we must be vocal in the 
fight by another “minority” group in its efforts 
to achieve “status.” And as far as that thinking 
goes—north of the Mason-Dixon Line—it may 
be accurate. The negro may be a minority group 
in the North. In many sections of the South 
the white people are the minority group. 

As a case in point, take my own State, Coun¬ 
ty and Town. Statistics show that 45 per cent, 
of Mississippi’s population is negro. But that 
does not give an accurate picture of the distri¬ 
bution of this negro population. There are many 
of the "hill" counties with little or no negro 
population. Yet in my own county, there are 
about 20,000 white people and 40,000 negroes. 
In this county, there are 4,000 white children of 
educable age—6 through 21—and 8,722 colored 
children of the same ages. In my own town, 
there are 500 white children in the white con¬ 
solidated 12-grade school. There are over 1,000 
colored children in the colored consolidated 12- 
grade school. 

Should integration come (personally, I don’t 
think it ever will), there would be two colored 
children to every white child in every grade in 
school. My own 10-year-old daughter, who is in 







the upper section of her class, will be in the 5th 
grade this year. In that 5th grade, in an inte- 
grated school, the class would be something like 
this (assuming half boys and half girls): 5 white 
girls, 5 white boys, 10 colored girls, 10 colored 
boys. The white boys and girls would be all 10 
or 11 years old. But what of the colored boys 
and girls? Our records show that the rate of 
failures among the primary students is very, 
very high. The colored boys and girls in that 
5th grade room would range in age from 12 to 
15. Given the same economic, social, moral and 
financial backgrounds, it would still be consid¬ 
ered unwise in many educational circles to mix 
such a varied age group. But when you add to 
the variance in ages 10 to 15—the difference in 
cultural, moral, economic and educational back¬ 
grounds, I find it impossible to see this as the 
way to assure the advancement of Mississippi’s 
negro boys and girls. 

The one thing which General Nathan Twin¬ 
ing found most distressing and disturbing on 
his recent visit to Russia was the fact that they 
are going to win the “classroom” war in the race 
to produce more and better scientists in the 
coming generation. This fact has long been 
known to professional educators and lay leaders 
who have concerned themselves with schools 
and their problems. Now the military has caught 
on. In the interests of national defense, isn’t 
this a very poor idea to undertake an integra¬ 
tion program which would inevitably result in 
fewer and less adequate scientists when the cry¬ 
ing need is for more and better trained people? 
If you think I’m “just whistlin’ Dixie”, to use a 
Southern expression, I advise you to study the 
facts and figures which have been brought out 
in the investigation of the deterioration of the 
public schools in Washington, D. C., the nation's 
capitol, as a direct result of their hasty and ill- 
considered determination to make the Washing¬ 
ton system a model of integration for others to 



follow. This investigation should be doubly in¬ 
teresting to American Jewry, or Jewish Ameri¬ 
cans, as you prefer, in view of the fact that the 
attorney heading the investigating committee is 
Mr. Will Gerber, of Memphis, Mr. Gerber is .a 
Jewish Southerner. 

I am wholeheartedly in favor of the advance¬ 
ment of the colored people of the State of Mis¬ 
sissippi, the South and the nation. I am whole¬ 
heartedly opposed to the thinking of those who 
claim it can be achieved by integration. 

Where then can I go to implement my sin¬ 
cere desire to help the negro advance, as they 
desire to do, yet not at my expense and at the 
expense of my children? In other words, how 
can I help them to help themselves educational¬ 
ly, economically, culturally at their own rate 
and at the pace best suited to their capacities. 
It can only be done through continued segre¬ 
gated facilities. By expense, as used above, I do 
not refer to financial expense. This I. gladly 
assume. The expense I referred to was moral, 
educational, cultural. What group could I join 
that would speak out for the preservation of 
segregation and at the same time lend the Mis¬ 
sissippi negro a hand in advancing? There was 
such a group and I joined it. The Citizens' 
Council—dedicated to the preservation of seg¬ 
regation, but not “against” the negro. Not op¬ 
posed to his achievement or advancement. Just 
dedicated to the proposition that that achieve¬ 
ment and advancement could best come about 
through continued segregation. 

But, some have said,, the Citizens' Council is 
a renewal of the KKK. Nothing could be fur¬ 
ther from the truth as regards Mississippi Coun¬ 
cils. Any. community anywhere, large or small, 
which has.a so-called Citizens’ Council that is 
accused of emulating KKK tactics, has only it¬ 
self and its so-called “best citizens” to blame. 
Where community leaders have assumed their 
rightful responsibilities of leadership and 


17 ] 






where the lawyers, doctors, business leaders and , 
educators have organized Councils, there you 
have peaceful, harmonious relations with no re* j 
mote resemblance to the KKK. While Klans* 
men hide their faces, members of the Citizens' 
Council proudly proclaim their membership. 

But, some have said, the Citizens’ Councils 
are anti-Semitic. Nothing of the sort. Where 
prominent Jewish leaders have enrolled as mem- , 
bers and taken an active part in the duties of the 
Council, there is no chance of anti-Semitism 
creeping in. There are communities where Jew¬ 
ish leaders have flatly refused to join, although 
in these, same communities prominent Catholic 
and Protestant men have joined, despite the 
stands taken on segregation nationally by their 
church groups. Who can blame them for feeling 
a bit bitter against white Southerners who try 
to stay “neutral” on such an issue? The white 
person who lives and works in the South has got 
to realize, from first-hand knowledge of the sit¬ 
uation, what integration would mean, and he can 
do one of three things: He can realize it, and 
do all in his power to keep it from happening. 

He can realize it, and still feel that it is the 
thing to do and therefore be in favor of it. He 
can realize it, and desire earnestly to be "neu¬ 
tral" and let happen what will—but his will be 
a false neutrality in the eyes of his neighbors 
who will figure that “silence gives consent,” be¬ 
cause if everybody decided to be “neutral” the \ 
silence would be pure and simple consent. So 
the- Jew who attempts to be neutral is much like J 
the ostrich. And he has no right to be surprised 
or amazed when the target he so readily pre- j 
sents is fired upon. 

Because I have always manifested such re- ( 
spect for my own religion, my fellow-members * 
of my local Citizens’ Council would not for one 
moment entertain thoughts of turning the Coun- | 
cil’s activities into anti-Semitic channels. This 
pattern is, I am confident, being repeated in all j 




the towns and cities where respected and self- 
respecting Jewish Southerners have felt as I 
feel—-that segregation must be maintained and 
that membership in the Citizens’ Council will 
help to maintain it. I speak from first-hand 
knowledge when I say that there are many Jew¬ 
ish members of Citizens’ Councils both here 
and in Alabama. They realize, as I do, that any 
white Southerner, Christian or Jew, must do all 
he can to help maintain segregation. When in¬ 
tegration comes to the South, the white South¬ 
erner will have to leave. 

f In many parts of the country, organizations 

are springing up which have adopted the obvi¬ 
ous, famous and popular name “Citizens' Coun¬ 
cil." Some are well led and have the support of 
the finest elements in their community. Some 
may not be. In a movement of this magnitude 
it is natural that some of these organizations 
would not be well led and that opportunists 
would seek to take advantage of the chaos and 
confusion caused by the “Black Monday” de¬ 
cision of the Supreme Court. 

Each Citizens’ Council and its leaders will 
have to be judged according to their actions and 
deeds. Each Council in Mississippi and in most 
other States is a separate, independent, autono¬ 
mous group which elects its own officers and 
maintains its own treasury. They are not respon¬ 
sible to nor for any other group or individual. 
The fact that the movement has grown sponta¬ 
neously under these conditions proves the 
righteousness of our cause, brought about by 
popular resistance of good citizens to the ob¬ 
viously political “Black Monday” decision of 
the Supreme Court. Since this movement is 
based on public opinion, it is hoped that public 
opinion will eliminate unworthy, self-seeking 
rabble rousers who attempt to acquire personal 
publicity and who mistake notoriety for support. 

Here in the South, particularly in smaller 
cities and towns, we cannot give lip service to 


( 9 ] 






integration as is done in the North and avoid 
having it by zoning laws, restricted neighbor* 
hoods, and such subterfuges. In the hundreds 
of small towns which comprise these Southern 
States, there is no such thing as zoning. Two or 
three schools will serve the whole town and 
those families living within a radius of 15 to 20 
miles outside of the towns. Colored and white 
people live on "both sides of the tracks." Col* 
ored farmers live side by side with white farm¬ 
ers. No, the only way we can have segregation 
is to say so openly and frankly and let every¬ 
body know where we stand — and where he 
stands. - 

The NAACP would have the world believe 
that the million negroes in Mississippi and the 
millions of others in other Southern States are 
solidly united in their burning desire for ad¬ 
vancement. Statistics on school attendance tell 
a different tale. Nationally, about 50 per cent, 
of the boys and girls who enroll in the first 
grade complete the full 12 grades and graduate 
from high school. In Mississippi, among the 
white students, the State average is 33 per cent. 
Among the negro students, this average is 3 
per cent. In our home county, the average 
among ;the white students is 20 per cent, and 
among the negro students is 2 per cent. It would 
seem to be that the larger the negro population 
in a town or county, the fewer complete their 
high school'education. This is true despite the 
fact that in some sections of the State, notably 
in the rich Delta country, colored students are 
enjoying a full nine months of school, in newly 
built, modern buildings that are far better 
staffed, offer a longer school term and more 
varied curriculum than many white students 
enjoy in poorer sections of the State. * . 

Yet, we venture the opinion that the negro 
in. the South in general, and Mississippi in par¬ 
ticular, has done more “advancing” than those 
in the so-called integrated States. We have to- 





day in Mississippi 14 negro college presidents. 
We have 191 negro college professors. There 
are 1531 negro men and 841 negro women work¬ 
ing in the negro colleges of the State of Missis? 
sippi. There are 2889 negro teachers holding: 
Bachelors degrees or Masters degrees in the 
State of Mississippi. These teachers hold either 
the A or A A certificate. We have 7030 negro 
teachers in the State of Mississippi. How many 
negro college presidents do you find in New 
York State? In Illinois? In Michigan? How 
many college professors? How many negro 
classroom teachers? 

I have a strong feeling that the people of 
B’nai B’rith who spoke so boldly and so loudly 
for integration are the people farthest re¬ 
moved from the problem not only here in the 
South but in their own back yards. They are, by 
virtue of education, profession, financial status 
and the rest of the factors involved, the least in 
position to be faced with the problems of inte-: 
gration affecting them directly. So they fall 
into the category of the “Let’s you do it" in- 
eegrationists. I wonder how many negroes live 
in the neighborhood of the presidents of so- 
called National Jewish organizations? How 
many belong to their Kiwanis, Lions, Rotary or 
Exchange clubs? How many belong to their 
Synagogues? How many will be found in the 
schools attended by their sons or daughters, 
grandsons or granddaughters, nieces or neph¬ 
ews? Ask these same questions with regard to 
the other headers in Jewish organizations. Then 
ask yourself what about the stand .of the less 
fortunate Northern Jew who finds himself in 
an economic status that throws him into the in¬ 
tegrated . neighborhoods and schools. Did he 
encourage .the B'nai B’rith to. take the stand it 
did? Somehow, I don’t think so. . 

If Southern Jewry were of a mind to indulge 
in a Iittle'.“finger pointing” we could sit here in 
the ivory tower of our isolation from the large 









and terrible problems of the labor unions, labor 
racketeers, Communists in organized labor and 
the like which fill the papers daily. We could 
recoil in horror from the thought that a Jew 
could be a member of such groups, could con¬ 
done the thing done to so fine a man as Victor 
Reisel. We could urge Northern Jewry to break 
away from affiliation with such undesirable 
groups and elements. We could piously point 
out that the good which would result from such 
an upheaval would surely make it up to th'em for 
their loss of life, limb and property. However, 
we realize that we are somewhat removed from 
the scene. So in a spirit of tolerance and sym¬ 
pathy, we leave the Northern public, including 
Northern Jewry, to settle their own labor prob¬ 
lems, dishonesty, racketeering, communism, 
bossism, graft, corruption and the rest. 

Is it too much to ask that they leave us to the 
solution of our own problems? Any jackass can 
i be a Monday morning quarterback, an armchair 

general. Any idiot can successfully rear the 
other fellow’s children or make a go of his mar¬ 
riage or solve his financial difficulties. But it is 
the smart man who knows that each person has 
not only the' right but the obligation to settle 
his own problems to the best of his ability. 

I am engaged, through the Citizens’ Council, 
in attempting to solve the negro problem in a 
way that will be to the benefit of all Southerners, 
colored and white, and will not be to the detri¬ 
ment or determent of any. The way to do this 
is through continued segregation. Any Missis¬ 
sippi negro who wants to advance can do so. 
He can have the best advantages of a good gram¬ 
mar school, high school and college education. 
He can return to his home as a doctor, lawyer, 
teacher or minister and make good. If he is real¬ 
ly interested in the advancement of his people, 
he can help them enjoy the same advantages that 
he enjoyed. The negro cannot be advanced by 
legislation. He cannot have advancement poured 


1121 





a" inn"r d«" e" 1 ,' Ho 

h *lped to advance. * * VanCed bet ot,°L t0 h ‘ n 
M-ch criticism wa, I,„ , „ b ' 

2ens f Council in fi, 4 

because it wa. ruml" **» of or ,,Ie CiM 
“aed economic pr«.7 ure ‘‘ hejr 

««nps. These boyJus'ha ^ 
have bred ill will L?, 8 soI Ved y ne ^o 
eeat job, and 7al^ 

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phases of Government ! IT raCe ‘ r «i*ii 1? • Uses 
pressure only to be rf v deavor - Is e * lft 
ernera emp loy it? -«d when whit.'^c 

Of 

munity atl d in our State IS?** 1 *** in °< JT°*' 

ing for—worth f u ." somet hing worth * t,on 
Citizens* 

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Additional copies may be h»* 

10 for . 7 ' hSdl J ost Paid, for . 

50 for . . 

100 for l ' * 00 

Please send cash, monev orti 6 ^ 

with order der 0r ch eci( 

ASSOCIATION OF CITIZENS- corm 

Greenwood, Mississipp^ ^ 0 ^ ‘ 

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Recommended Reading 

pamphubts 

C K M°“ d>y lB0 ° W By °J“«' Tom p ' B ' a4y 

m . court Must BeC>£b M F ByIO(!S 
The Sup 1 * ; i 

chr istian View ou £g*S* *■ «T 
* Ug ly Truth About theNAAC| u!ene Cook 

^ e i ve Beached Era ^iSaU»i 

gictiug Views on Segregate.D.M. Nelaon 

C “" position, the BarnerA|ath«t B ^® am , 
irvterP By ^ ^ B Pa tterson 

Citizen' 8 Council above are: 

T»« ® icei of Pamphlets hsted ^. s6 , 00 

»..•-»»" *"ZZ- 

SINGLE SHEETS 

, segregation Unchristian! 

« Se J. Louis Story 
T " e seise"’ 8 Utter to Life 

Pr '. „ Report Makes Frank Statement 

CtU " „ent Ktngstree Be•» »’ 00 _g 3 .00) 
PI °SS$e sheets listed above ar . lw _, liM 

Land o« Tr 

Contedera^ uponOCcaMonM » 

E» ch literature to ejfj at meetings. The 

nieces „?*her distribute them wt ^ e to friends 

1 &° un tors° should urge aUtJteswU to pass this literal. 

■ Oireffliles in other States ^ can do his part m 

\ *«i S*to them SO that £ uth . 

' S5Sm« the ease to t CouncH , 

ww wysMSM' 

1 114 1 






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A 

CHRISTIAN VIEW 

ON 

SEGREGATION 


Reprint of an Address 

By 

REV. G. T. GILLESPIE, D. D. 
President Emeritus of 
Belhaven College 
Jackson, Mississippi 


Made Before 
The Synod of Mississippi 
of the Presbyterian Church 
in the U. S. 
November 4, 1954 




















A STATEMENT 

In Defense of the Principle of Racial Segregation 

By DR. G. T. GILLESPIE. D.D. 

President Emeritus of Belhaven College 

The problem of race relations is not new. It is as 
old as civilization. Whenever in the history of the 
race two peoples of significantly different character¬ 
istics have come in contact with each other, or have 
sought to occupy the same area, a problem of race 
relations has inevitably developed. The closer the 
contact, and the more nearly the numerical strength 
of the two groups has approached equality, the more 
difficult and acute the problem has become. 

The problem of racial relations throughout the 
world today has been greatly accentuated by the 
rapid development of modern means of communica¬ 
tion and transportation, which have brought all the 
peoples of the world into much closer contact than 
ever before. 

The problem has also been complicated by the 
worldwide spread of Karl Marx's doctrine of Inter¬ 
nationalism and the Classless society, combined with 
the vigorous propaganda of Soviet Communism to 
bring about a world revolution and the breakdown 
of all national and racial distinctions and to effect 
the complete amalgamation of all races, 

The Anglo-Saxon and English-speaking people 
have steadfastly opposed and resisted the mixture of 
their racial stock with that of other peoples, espe¬ 
cially where the physical and cultural characteristics 
were widely dissimilar, and wherever they have gone, 
around the world, they have consistently instituted 
and maintained a pattern of segregation which uni¬ 
formly provided an effective check against the proc¬ 
ess of amalgamation, and which has preserved the 
racial integrity of the English-speaking peoples of 
the world. 

The race problem in America arises inherently 
out of the concentration of large masses of the negro 
race in areas predominantly Anglo-Saxon in racial 
type and in culture, and where the principle of racial 
segregation has been generally upheld by legal; social 
and moral sanctions. 

Comparatively little of the opposition to the 
principle of segregation has come spontaneously from 
the pure-blood negroes, or from the masses of the 
negro population; more strenuous opposition has 
come from, the negroes of mixed blood, who have 
migrated from the South to Northern cities, and who 
bitterly resent the tensions and discrimination to 
which they find themselves and their families sub¬ 
jected in their efforts to secure recognition in North- 

' 1 2 ] 


ern communities, It is not without significance, how¬ 
ever, that a very considerable part of the violent 
agitation against segregation stems from sources out¬ 
side the negro race, and outside of America, and co¬ 
incides with the worldwide movement for racial 
amalgamation which has its fountainhead in Moscow. 

THE REAL ISSUE 

Here, therefore, is the crux of this whole problem 
of racial relations, whether we face it in America or 
in the world at large. It is essentially a choice be¬ 
tween the Anglo-Saxon ideal of racial Integrity main¬ 
tained by a consistent application of the principle of 
segregation, and the Communist goal of amalgamation, 
implemented by the wiping out of all distinctions and 
the fostering of the most intimate contact between 
the races in all the relations of life. 

Many well-meaning civil and religious leaders 
who now denounce the principle of segregation, and 
endorse the policy of integration in schools, churches 
and other areas of life, seem to ignore, or deliberately 
refuse to recognize that the question of racial inter¬ 
marriage is inevitably involved, and in the nature of 
the, case, is bound to overshadow all other aspects of 
the problem. 

At present the rank and file of the negro race are 
not particularly interested in intermarriage with the 
white race, and if left to themselves would probably 
never seek it; however, the self-appointed leaders of 
the anti-segregation movement are not only fully 
aware of the inherent and logical implications of their 
demand for the repudiation of the principle of segre¬ 
gation, but make bold to declare that the goal which 
they seek in America is “A social democracy which 
either begins with marriage, or necessarily includes 
marriage in its ideals and principles." 

A recent issue of “The Pittsburgh Courier,” a rep¬ 
resentative negro newspaper, in voicing intense re¬ 
sentment against Dr., Norman Vincent Peale of "Look 
Magazine" for advising a negro girl against marrying 
a white boy, said: “It is not possible to have people 
of different race, nationalities and religions living 
together, working together and playing together and 
bar them from marrying. We have a law in several 
states that gives them equal opportunity to work to¬ 
gether and live together. We now have a national 
law that requires that they get their education to¬ 
gether. . . . Intermarriage is as necessarily Christian 
as interfaith and inter-racial education. We will have 
to have de-segregation in that area of life, and it has 
already begun to move heavily.” 

Under our system of compulsory education the 
abandonment of’the principle of segregation and the 
enforcement of the policy of integration in the schools, 
especially in the South and in other communities in 

I3J 
















which the negro population approximates or exceeds 
the white population, could have but one of two pos¬ 
sible results: either a state of constant friction and 
tension would develop between the two groups, which 
would greatly complicate the problem of discipline 
and administration, and ultimately destroy the morale 
and impair the efficiency of the public school system, 
or, on the other hand, it would lead to the cultivation 
of such attitudes and social intimacies as would nor¬ 
mally and inevitably result in intermarriage. 

In Northern or Western communities, where ne¬ 
groes number usually less than five per cent of the 
total population, the admission of a few negro chil¬ 
dren to the public schools does not present any seri¬ 
ous problem, and even if an occasional interracial 
marriage should occur, it would have little appre¬ 
ciable effect upon the cultural pattern or the blood¬ 
stream of community life, but in the South, where 
negroes constitute a large proportion, and in some 
areas a majority, of the population, the integrated 
school with its blurring of all racial distinctions pre¬ 
sents a serious threat to the whole cultural pattern 
of community life, and points unmistakably to the 
gradual but eventual merging of the two distinct ra¬ 
cial types into a mulatto race. This is not a baseless 
and fantastic phobia, but a well grounded and rea¬ 
soned conviction which determines the attitude of 
Southern parents, and gives assurance that they can¬ 
not and will not acquiesce in a program which means 
the surrender of the birthright of their children and 
of generations yet unborn. 

Laying aside therefore the shallow sophistries, 
concerning so-called “Civil Rights,” “The Psychologi¬ 
cal and Sociological Effects of Segregation,” “The 
Principles of Human Brotherhood,” and the purely 
academic questions concerning racial superiority or 
inferiority, let us be realistic in our approach to this 
problem; let us not evade the issue, nor close our eyes 
to the stark reality, but face it frankly and courage¬ 
ously; here in America, if we believe that the wel¬ 
fare of both the white and the negro races would be 
promoted by preserving the integrity of each race, 
then we must maintain some effective and equitable 
form of segregation; if we believe that the welfare 
and happiness of both races would be promoted by 
intermarriage and the development of a hybrid race, 
then all we need to do is to let down the bars of 
segregation in the homes, the schools, the churches 
and in all areas of community life, and let nature 
take its course. 

But before we commit ourselves and our nation, 
finally and irrevocably to this fateful choice, let us 
recall and weigh carefully some pertinent considera¬ 
tions which may be offered in defense of the principle 
of segregation. 


14 ] 












1. Segregation Is Hoi the Child of Race Prejudice. 

In recent years the much-abused term “race 
prejudice” has been associated indiscriminately with 
the principle of segregation in the effort to discredit 
it by implying low origin and bad associations. The 
difficulty and the injustice in this connection results 
from the confusion of race prejudice and race pride. 
Race prejudice is indeed a blind, unreasoning, fanati¬ 
cal emotion which issues in race hatred and inhuman¬ 
ity, and is essentially destructive and immoral in its 
end results. Race pride, on the other hand, is a ra¬ 
tional, normal, positive principle, and is essentially 
constructive and moral, Pride of race, like love of 
home and love of country, has been one of the mighti¬ 
est forces making for human happiness and progress. 
Indeed, these three principles are indissolubly linked 
together in the hearts of men and in the experience of 
the race, and must stand or fall together. Surely it is 
not merely a coincidence that the forces which are 
battling to break down race pride, which they mis¬ 
takenly identify with race prejudice, are the same 
forces which are insiduously seeking to undermine 
and destroy the love of home, and the love of coun¬ 
try in all the lands upon which their baleful shadow 
has been cast. 

2, Segregation Is One of Nature's Universal Laws. 

In all nature, the herd instinct prevails to a 
greater or less degree, and all living creatures are 
drawn together in larger or smaller groups by certain 
affinities based upon common physical characteristics. 
Animals by instinct mate only with their own kind, 
perpetuating their own species and transmitting their 
natural or acquired characteristics to their offspring. 
No intermingling or crossbreeding with animals of 
widely different characteristics takes place except un¬ 
der abnormal or artificial conditions. 

The old adage, “Birds of a feather flock together,” 
only expresses a fact of common observation and 
universal experience. There are many varieties of 
the bird family, but under natural conditions, so far 
as known, bluebirds never mate with redbirds, doves 
never mate with blackbirds, nor mockingbirds with 
jays. The fact that man also is a gregarious animal 
and that human beings everywhere and under all 
conditions of life tend to segregate themselves into 
families, tribes, national or racial groups, only goes to 
prove that all human relations are regulated by this 
universal law of nature. 

The recognition that man is not only a creature 
of instinct, but that he is also endowed with reason 
and conscience, whereby he is able to perceive and 
appreciate the significance of the larger unity of the 
race and his obligations to all members of the human 
family does not nullify or repeal the basic taws oi 
human nature, but does provide for him a moral code 

[5 J 


















under which he is obligated to exercise his freedom 
with due regard for the rights of his fellows. 


3. Segregation Tends to Promote Progress. 

It is an elementary principle of livestock breed¬ 
ing that improvement of type comes only through the 
careful selection of breeding stock, and the rigid sepa¬ 
ration of animals of dissimilar or undesirable charac¬ 
teristics. The phenomenal development of the race 
horse, the draft horse, the beef and dairy breeds of 
cattle, furnish impressive evidence that segregation 
promotes development and progress, and that it may 
be continued almost indefinitely by the consistent ap¬ 
plication of the principle; whereas the intermingling 
of breeding stock results invariably in the production 
of "scrubs" or mongrel types; and the downgrading 
of the whole herd. r , 

The same principle applies with equal force to 
the process of human development. It is a noteworthy 
fact that down through the centuries the most con¬ 
spicuous advances in human progress have been 
made by those peoples, who by reason of circum¬ 
stances or by deliberate preference have been isolated 
to a great extent from other nations and races over 
long periods of time, and thus have been left free to 
develop their own peculiar genius and distinctive 
characteristics and culture. 

From the days of Abraham, approximately two 
thousand years before Christ, the Hebrews, by Divine 
command, became a segregated people, separated by 
traditions,';customs, religion -and by strict codes of 
ethics, physical and social hygiene from their neigh¬ 
bors. Undoubtedly they went to extremes in develop¬ 
ing inordinate racial pride and prejudice, which led 
them to despise the Gentile peoples with whom they 
came in contact. Nevertheless they have succeeded 
in preserving their racial stock and their cultural 
heritage, even down to our own day, and they have 
not only achieved the highest moral and spiritual'de- 
velopment of all the peoples of the earth, but have 
made an invaluable contribution to the moral and 
spiritual progress of mankind, In spite of many short¬ 
comings, and in spite of being both the exponents and 
the victims of bitter racial prejudice, the Hebrew 
people, like the waters of the Gulf stream in the midst 
of the ocean, have achieved a mission and a destiny 
which would have been impossible had they aban¬ 
doned the principle of segregation and become in¬ 
tegrated with the nations which hemmed them in-on 
all sides centuries ago. 

. In a similar manner the Greeks, by reason of 
geographical situation and other circumstances, en¬ 
joyed for centuries comparative isolation from other 
peoples of the world, whom they designated as bar¬ 
barians. By reason of this separation-they preserved 





n-*- 

with remarkable success. the purity of their racial 
stock for hundreds of years, and succeeded in devel¬ 
oping a physical vigor and vitality, an intellectual 
acuteness, an artistic perfection, and a political ideal¬ 
ism which made Hellenic culture the pattern and 
inspiration of all Western civilization. 

In modern times the most conspicuous example 
of the truth of this principle is found in the remark¬ 
able record of the British people. Insulated in many 
ways from the other peoples of Europe and of the 
, world in their island home, the British have developed 

a vigorous racial stock and a virile and homogeneous 
culture, and have persistently refused to integrate 
J their bloodstream or their cultural heritage with 
those of alien or widely different racial types. Al¬ 
though numerically insignificant as compared with 
other peoples, the British have nevertheless made 
great achievements in every field of human en¬ 
deavor, and have made an immeasurably greater con¬ 
tribution to the total intellectual, social, economic, 
and moral welfare of mankind than any other people 
in ancient or modem times. 

Still another impressive and perhaps the most 
pertinent illustration of the proposition that segrega¬ 
tion tends to promote progress is the amazing record 
of the negro in America, and particularly here in the 
South, where the two races have lived side by side in 
approximately equal numbers in many areas, under 
a system of segregation, more or less uniformly main¬ 
tained since the close of the Civil War. Despite the 
dire poverty and disorganization of the post-war 
period, the false leadership of unscrupulous whites 
f and the charlatans of his own race, and the many 

cruel injustices which he suffered at the hands of 
i dishonest landlords, callous public officials and the 

1 much-publicized mob violence, the Southern negro 

has somehow managed to acquire a greater number 
of homes, farms, banks and other properties, has 
achieved a higher standard of living, and today en¬ 
joys larger educational and economic opportunities, 
is -happier and better adjusted, than can be said of 
any comparable number of his race at any time in 
their history or in any part of the world today. 

4. Segregation Does Not Necessarily Involve 
Discrimination. 

Whenever two individuals or groups of widely 
different physical characteristics are brought into 
close contact, it is likely or even inevitable that some 
discrimination should occur, especially where the sit¬ 
uations are competitive; but such discrimination is a 
spontaneous human reaction and cannot be charged 
against the principle of segregation. 

As a matter of fact, segregation, by reducing the 
number of points of contact, tends to lessen friction 
and tension, and especially if there is clear recogni- 

! 7 J 



tion on the part of both races that the chief reason 
for segregation is the desirability of preventing such 
intimacies as might lead to intermarriage and the 
amalgamation of the races, then the chief occasion for 
misunderstanding and discrimination is removed. 

Assuming the development of racial pride in the 
negro race to the point where he would be as zealous 
as the white man in safeguarding the integrity of his 
race, and that both races would cheerfully accept 
some effective form of segregation as the only ef¬ 
fective means of achieving that end where the two 
races live side by side in large numbers, there would 
seem to be no insuperable difficulty in working out 
plans which would provide “separate but equal” op¬ 
portunities and facilities for both races, which would 
avoid any suggestion of discrimination, and which 
would promote the largest possible harmony and co¬ 
operation between the races. 

5. The Principle of Segregation May Be Defended 

on Biblical Grounds and Is Not ''Unchristian.'’ 

While the Bible contains no clear mandate for 
or against segregation as between the white and 
negro races, it does furnish considerable data from 
which valid inferences may be drawn in support of 
the general principle of segregation as an important 
feature of the Divine purpose and Providence 
throughout the ages. 

Concerning matters of this kind, which in the 
inscrutable wisdom of God have been left for man¬ 
kind to work out in the light of reason and experi¬ 
ence without the full light of revelation, we dare not 
be dogmatic, but we do well to examine with open 
mind some of the more pertinent references. 

(1) The First Separation (Gen. 4:11-26). 

A mark is placed upon Cain, and he is separated 
from the other branch of the human family, repre¬ 
sented by Seth and his descendants. From Cain 
were descended men of great vigor and inventive 
genius, from Seth were descended men who began to 
call upon the name of the Lord, and were evidently 
those elsewhere referred to as “The Sons of God.” 

(2) Demoralization Resulting from Intermarriage 

(Gen. 6:1-7). 

The promiscuous intermarriage of the Sons of 
God, that is, the descendents of Seth, with the 
“Daughters of Men,” who were apparently the de¬ 
scendents of Cain, resulted in the complete break¬ 
down of family life and such widespread immorality 
end wickedness as to'provoke the Lord to destroy the 
earth with the flood. A possible though not necessary 
inference from this tragic story is that the intermar¬ 
riage of dissimilar groups, whether the differences be 

181 









moral, cultural or physical, is not conducive to the 
preservation of wholesome family life or to morality, 
and therefore is contrary to the purpose and will of 
God. 

(3) New Divisions After the Flood Stemming 
From Sons of Noah (Gen. 9:18-29). 

After the flood the three sons of Noah, Shem, 
Ham and Japheth, became the progenitors of three 
distinct racial groups, which were to repeople and 
overspread the earth. The descendents of Shem mi¬ 
grated eastward and occupied most of Asia; the de¬ 
scendents of Japheth migrated westward and ulti¬ 
mately occupied the continent of Europe, while the 
children of Ham moved generally southward toward 
the tropics and occupied the continent of Africa, and 
possibly southern Asia and the islands of the Pacific, 

This brief record, the accuracy of which has not 
been successfully disputed by the anthropologists and 
ethnologists, while affirming the unity of the race, 
also implies that an all-wise Providence has "deter¬ 
mined the times before appointed, and the bounds of 
their habitation." Which same Providence by deter¬ 
mining the climatic and other physical conditions 
under which many successive generations of the sev¬ 
eral racial groups should live, is thereby equally re¬ 
sponsible for the distinct racial characteristics which 
seem to have become fixed in prehistoric times, and 
which are chiefly responsible for the segregation of 
racial groups across the centuries and in our time. 

(4) Origin of Linguistic Differences (Gen. 11:19). 

This indicates that the Confusion of Tongues, 
which took place at Babel, with the consequent scat¬ 
tering of the peoples was an act of special Divine 
Providence to frustrate the mistaken efforts of god¬ 
less men to assure the permanent integration of the 
peoples of the earth. Incidentally it indicates that the 
development of different languages was not merely 
natural or accidental, but served a Divine purpose, in 
becoming one of the most effective means of pre¬ 
serving the separate existence of the several racial 
groups 

(5) Abraham Called to a Separated Life 

(Gen., Chapters 12-25), 

Abram, later changed to Abraham, was called to 
separate himself from his home and his kindred in 
Ur of the Chaldees and to live as a "stranger in a 
strange land." Under Divine guidance and blessing 
he and his household lived peaceably with the inhabi¬ 
tants without mingling with them socially or inter¬ 
marrying with them. The Covenant of Circumcision 
instituted by God provided a sign or seal which was 
to distinguish and set apart in a most significant way 




the “Seed of Abraham," or the Hebrew people from 
all the other peoples of the earth throughout all gen¬ 
erations. Many incidental circumstances, such as the 
refusal of God to allow the son of Hagar, the Egyp¬ 
tian bondwoman, to become the heir of the covenant 
promise, the great care exercised by Abraham to 
secure a wife for his son Isaac from among his own 
kindred rather than from among the Canaanites, and 
a similar concern manifested by Isaac and Rebekah 
concerning wives for their sons, all emphasize the 
importance which is attached to the principle of seg¬ 
regation, and doubtless paved the way for the empha¬ 
sis given to it in the Mosaic economy and in the sub¬ 
sequent history of Israel. 

(6) Prohibitions Against the Mingling of 

Diverse Things (Lev. 19:19). 

According to the law delivered to Moses, the 
crossbreeding of diverse strains of cattle, the planting 
of mixed seeds, and the mixing of wool and linen in 
a garment were forbidden. We are not told the rea¬ 
sons for this curious law, but it seems impossible to 
escape the conclusion that if such intermixture of 
diverse elements in the lower orders of animal and 
plant life were unseemly and contrary to the Divine 
purpose, the same principle would apply with even 
greater force with respect to human relations. 

(7) The Warnings of Moses Against Intermarriage 

With Other Peoples (Deut. 7:3). 

Moses strictly warned the Israelites against al¬ 
lowing their sons and daughters to intermarry with 
the pagan peoples with whom they came in contact, 
under the penalty of bringing upon themselves the 
Divine wrath and judgment. This warning was em¬ 
phasized repeatedly, and was specially burned into 
the consciousness of the nation by the terrible pen¬ 
alties which were inflicted upon those who commit¬ 
ted whoredom with the daughters of Moab at Baal- 
Peor (Numbers 25:1-8). 

(8) Ezra's Condemnation of Mixed Marriages 

(Ezra, Chapters 9-10). 

After the return of the Jews from the Babylonish 
captivity, it was discovered that great numbers of the 
prominent Jews had taken wives from among the 
heathen people of the land. This caused Ezra to rend 
his clothes and tear his hair, and cry unto God for 
mercy upon the sinning nation. The drastic steps 
which were taken to purge out this evil practice 
emphasized anew the vital importance which was 
.attached to the preservation of* the purity, and integ¬ 
rity of*.the racial stock by the leaders of,the nation 
.and by.their Divine ruler, :V ' r ' ■- >,■ >,. * . 

1 110 I 


(9) The Attitude and Teachings of Our Lord— 

The Four Gospels. 

There is no question but that the emphasis placed 
by Our Lord upon the love of God for the whole 
world (John 3:16. and other passages) was intended 
in part at least, as a rebuke to the bigotry and in¬ 
tolerance of the Jewish leaders, and to counteract 
the attitude of contempt and indifference which the 
Jewish people as a whole manifested toward the 
other peoples of the world. Likewise his declaration 
as to the supreme worth of the human soul (Matt. 
16:26) and His last great command to His followers 
to go into all the world and make disciples of all na¬ 
tions (Matt. 26:19-20) make it abundantly clear that 
the redeeming love of Christ knows no limitations of 
class or condition or nationality or race, but like a 
mighty river sweeps across every natural or artificial 
barrier to bring the water of life to the thirsty souls 
of men. He used the story of the Good Samaritan to 
rebuke the smug complacency and narrow-minded 
prejudice of the Jews, but he did not ignore or de¬ 
nounce racial distinctions, nor did he set plans on 
foot to abolish them and to bring about amalgamation 
of the Jews and the Samaritans, or of any other 
races. As a matter of fact, in sending out the twelve 
on their first Gospel mission he directed them to go 
“only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel" (Matt. 
10:5-6) and in dealing with the Syro-Phoenecian 
woman he takes particular care to emphasize the dif¬ 
ferent status of the two races, before granting her 
request. The Golden Rule, as proclaimed by Our 
Lord, must unquestionably be applied to the field of 
race relations as well as to all other human relation¬ 
ships; at the same time no reasonable interpretation 
of this great principle requires to do unto or for, the 
individual or the race, for the sake of some fancied 
benefit or momentary satisfaction, that which we 
have reason to believe will in the end imperil the 
stability of the social order and the future welfare 
of the race. 

(10) The Attitude and Teachings of The Apostles— 

The Acts and the Epistles. 

The Gift of Tongues at Pentecost was undoubt¬ 
edly a prophecy that the Gospel should be preached 
to all nations and that every people should hear the 
Gospel in their own languages, but it-gives no hint 
that all linguistic, national or racial differences are to 
be wiped out in the Gospel Dispensation. 

Peter’s Vision on the housetop in Joppa, his sub¬ 
sequent visit to the home of Cornelius, the Roman 
Centurion, his baptism of the household after they 
had received the Holy Ghost, and his statement that 
“God is no respector of persons,” marks the removal 
of the Jewish traditions and prejudices which barred 

I 11J 







the entrance of the Gentiles into the household of 
faith, and sets the pattern for Christianity as the new 
religion for all nations and all the peoples of the 
earth. 

Paul, the Apostle to the Gentiles, naturally had 
more to say concerning this question than any of the 
other New Testament writers. In his notable speech 
to the Greeks at Athens he said: "God .. . hath made 
of one blood all nations of men, for to dwell on all the 
face of the earth; and hath determined the times be¬ 
fore appointed and the bounds of their habitations” 
(Acts 17:24-26). Writing to the Colossians he said: 
"And have put on the new man, which is renewed in 
knowledge after the image of Him that created him; 
where there is neither Greek nor Jew, circumcision 
or uncircumcision. Barbarian, Scythian, bond nor 
free, but Christ is all in all.” 

In the first passage Paul affirms the unity of the 
race based upon a common origin, concerning which 
there can be no difference of opinion among those 
who accept the authority of the Bible. In the second 
passage Paul asserts the unity of all believers in 
Christ, regardless of their racial differences, but this 
unity is a spiritual relationship resulting from the 
mystical union of each believer with Christ Himself, 
in which all enjoy the same spiritual privileges and 
benefits. That Paul had in mind the absolute uni¬ 
formity of believers in external relations and the wip¬ 
ing out of all distinctions of race, nationality, social 
status, sex or cultural heritage, is disproven by the 
fact that Paul never ceased to identify himself as a 
member of the Jewish race, and he made very prac¬ 
tical use of his right lo Roman citizenship. He rec¬ 
ognized the master-slave relationship prevalent in 
Greek and Roman society, and enjoined obedience to 
the reciprocal duties arising therefrom. He also clear¬ 
ly recognized the status assigned to women by social 
custom, and denied to women some of the privileges 
and functions exercised by men in the churches un¬ 
der his supervision. 

(11) Preview of The Church Triumphant 
(Rev., Chapters 4-7). 

The Seer of Patmos was permitted to behold in 
wonderful symbolism a preview of the Church Tri¬ 
umphant, the grand consummation of redemptive 
purpose through the ages. Before the rainbow circled 
throne set in the midst of the heavens, he beheld "a 
great multitude which no men could number, of all 
nations, and kindreds, and peoples and tongues,” 
uniting in a mighty chorus of praise to God and to 
the Lamb upon the throne. It would be presumptious 
indeed to say exactly what this symbolism means, or 
to rest the validity of any conclusions upon such in¬ 
terpretation; nevertheless it accords well with the 

t 12 1 



whole scheme of oreation, Providence and redemp¬ 
tion to see in the rainbow which circled the throne a 
fitting symbol of the spectrum of redeemed humanity 
made up of the peoples of every nation, kindred, race 
and language blended into a beautiful and harmoni¬ 
ous unity, and yet each preserving its own distinctive 
genius and virtues, the better to shew forth the in¬ 
finite riches and diversity of the Divine glory and 
grace throughout the ages to come. 

(12) Summary of Bible References. 

There are doubtless many other parts of Scrip¬ 
ture which may have some bearing upon this ques¬ 
tion, but which we cannot undertake to deal with in 
this discussion. But to summariaze the interpreta¬ 
tions of the passages above considered, the following 
conclusions would seem to be warranted: (a) Since 
for two thousand years the practice of segregation 
was imposed upon the Hebrew people by Divine au¬ 
thority and express command, and infractions of the 
command were punished with extreme severity, 
there is certainly no ground for the charge that racial 
segregation is displeasing to God, unjust to man, or 
inherently wrong; (b) Since Christ and the Apostles 
taught the love of God for all mankind, the oneness 
of believers in Christ, and demonstrated that the 
principles of Christian brotherhood and charity could 
be made operative in all relations of life, without 
demanding revolutionary changes in the natural or 
social order, there would appear to be no reason for 
concluding that segregation is in conflict with the 
spirit and the teachings of Christ and the Apostles, 
and therefore un-Christian. 

6. Segregation Is a Well-Considered 
and Time-Tested American Policy. 

Ample evidence is available to show beyond rea¬ 
sonable doubt that segregation represents the best 
thinking of representative American leadership, and 
as a time-tested national policy rests upon moral and 
ethical principles and not upon blind and unreasoning 
prejudice, as has been frequently and loudly charged 
by some of its latter-day critics. 

The principle of segregation has been incorpo¬ 
rated into the constitutions of seventeen of the sov¬ 
ereign states of the union, having been placed there 
by the people who were most directly concerned, and 
who were in position to have first-hand knowledge 
of all phases of the problem. Many other states ap¬ 
proved the principle by statutory legislation, and 
practically all of the states at one time or another 
have adopted laws prohibiting intermarriage between 
the white and negro races. State and Federal courts 
have uniformly approved these constitutional and 
statutory provisions, and the Supreme Court of the 

(131 







United States, in an unbroken line of decisions ex¬ 
tending down to the early part of the present year, 
confirmed the principle of segregation and established 
it as a firm principle of American public policy. The 
Congress of the United States, in the face of tremen¬ 
dous pressure from political agitators and minority 
pressure groups, has steadfastly refused to abolish 
segregation in the public schools of the District of 
Columbia or to outlaw it in the states. 

The recent decision of the Supreme Court not¬ 
withstanding, there are many concrete evidences that 
public sentiment throughout the nation is still strong¬ 
ly weighted in favor of segregation in the public 
schools or at least of leaving the decision with respect 
to it, to those states and communities where negroes 
constitute a substantial proportion of the population. 

THOMAS JEFFERSON 

Thomas Jefferson, author of the immortal Decla¬ 
ration of Independence, devoted much attention and 
study to the negro problem. He advocated with great 
earnestness the emancipaiton of negro slaves in 
America, but he believed so strongly in the physical 
separation of the races for the welfare of both, that 
he proposed that the negroes should be peaceably 
repatriated in Africa at Government expense, His 
point of view is clearly set forth in this extract from 
his autobiography, written in 1821 (Vol. 1, page 48): 
“Nothing is more certainly written in the book of 
fate than that these people are to be free; nor is it 
less certain that the two races, equally free, cannot 
live in the same government. Nature, habit, opinion, 
have drawn indelible lines of distinction between 
them. It is still in our power to direct the process of 
emancipation and deportation peaceably." 

ABRAHAM LINCOLN 

Abraham Lincoln, one of the wisest and most far- 
seeing of American statesmen; venerated and almost 
deified by the negro race as their “Great Emancipa¬ 
tor" and unfailing friend, devoted intense study to 
the race problem over a long period of years. He, like 
Jefferson, became so thoroughly convinced of the 
necessity of the physical separation of the races that 
he considered the most practical solution of the prob¬ 
lem was to colonize the negroes in Africa or the West 
Indies; He actually-had made proposals to this effect 
to Congress and was engaged- in working out-plans 
for putting it into execution at the time of-his tragic 
death, In a speech made by Lincoln at Charleston, 
Illinois, September 18, 1858, he said, “I will say then, 
that I am not now, nor, ever have- been, in favor 
of bringing about, in- any-way the .social;.-and po¬ 
litical equality of the-white .and. black races . . 
that I am not now, nor ever,have been; in favor of 

it 14 ) 




malting voters or jurors of negroes, nor of qualifying 
them to hold office, nor to intermarry with .white 
people; and 1 will say, in addition to this, that there is 
a physical difference between the white and black 
races which I believe will forever forbid the two 
races living together on terms of social and political 
equality/' 

Again, in an address made to a group of free 
negroes at the White House on August 14, 18fi2, Lin¬ 
coln said: "You and we are different races. We have 
between us a broader difference than exists between 
any other two races. Whether it is right or wrong I 
need not discuss, but this physical difference is a 
great disadvantage to us both, as I think ... If this is 
admitted, it affords a reason, at least, why we should 
be separated.” 

It is perhaps greatly to be deplored that the great 
plans of Lincoln for the segregation of the races, and 
for the equitable and permanent solution of the 
American race problem, were frustrated and defeated 
by his tragic and untimely death. In retrospect we 
may well count it the greatest disaster which ever 
befell the South and the nation. In the Providence of 
God, it is yet possible that we may yet find a just and 
wise solution of this great problem in the light of 
Lincoln’s prophetic vision, and in keeping with his 
patient spirit and the kindly impulses of his great 
heart. Many other testimonies could be cited from 
outstanding leaders in American public life to sup¬ 
port the proposition, that the only just and wise solu¬ 
tion of the American race problem must involve the 
recognition of the essential differences between the 
two races, and the necessity of some effective form 
of segregation which would assure the preservation 
of the integrity of both races. 

BOOKER T. WASHINGTON 

It was the recognition of this truth which made 
Booker T. Washington the most influential leader 
and the greatest benefactor of the negro race in his 
generation, and perhaps in the whole history of the 
negro race. All would-be leaders and promoters of 
better race relations in America today would do well 
to study his realistic approach to the .problem and 
follow his wise leadership. In a notable and epoch- 
making address delivered at the Atlanta Exposition 
in 1895, pleading for co-operation between two races, 
he sounded the keynote of his philosophy, and pro¬ 
vided for all men of understanding and goodwill a 
key to the solution of the problem, 'It is eminently 
fitting that this discussion should be concluded with 
the quotation of his wise words. He said: "The wisest 
among my race understand that agitation of questions 
of social equality is the extremest folly, and.that 
progress , in the enjoyment of all the privileges that 

1151 





will come to us must be the result of severe and con¬ 
stant struggle rather than of artificial forcing. ... In 
all things that are purely social we can be separate 
as the fingers, yet one as the hand in all things essen¬ 
tial to mutual progress.” 


HEV. G. T, GILLESPIE, D.D, - 

Dr. G. T. Gillespie, author of the above state¬ 
ment, is a native Mississippian. He received his edu¬ 
cation in the public schools of Mississippi, the Univer¬ 
sity of Mississippi, where he received the B.A. de¬ 
gree in 1905; at Union Theological Seminary in Vir¬ 
ginia, where he received the B.D. degree in 1911, and 
has done post-graduate work at Columbia Univer¬ 
sity. He was honored with the D.D. degree by South¬ 
western in 1928. He has served as Presbyterian Min¬ 
ister in Oklahoma and Mississippi, and is reconized 
as one of the outstanding leaders in the Southern 
Presbyterian Church. For thirty-three years he served 
as the President of Belhaven College, retiring in 1954 
with the title of President Emeritus. 

Under his leadership Belhaven College achieved 
notable progress along all lines and came to be rec¬ 
ognized as one of the best small liberal arts colleges 
of the South. For many years Dr. Gillespie has been 
active in many civic, educational and religious organ¬ 
izations, and he has been widely commended for his 
forthright and courageous stand on public questions, 
and likewise for his fair-minded and charitable atti¬ 
tude toward those who differ with him. 


FOR FURTHER INFORMATION 
WRITE TO THE 
EDUCATIONAL FUND OF THE 

CITIZENS’ COUNCILS 

Greenwood, Miss. 

READ AND PASS ON 

WE HEED YOUR HELP 

We hope you can make a contribution, to the 
Educational Fund which will be used to 

(1) Publish and distribute nationwide factual litera¬ 
ture presenting the case for states’ rights and 
racial integrity. 

(2) Initiate a movement to enter the national propa¬ 
ganda media such as the national press services, 
television, radio, national publications and the 
motion picture industry. 

Our auditors believe contributions will be deduc¬ 
tible from your income tax. Every effort will be made 
to get this tax-free status, and we believe these efforts 
will be successful. 


sessiL 


( 16 ) 




FD-340 (REV. 8-17-621 


File No- 


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Date Pogaivft rf.- { 

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To: Members of Che Missouri Legislature 


Genelemen B 

We B the undersigned wish Co go on record as being opposed to the 
repeal of Missouri’s Antl-Mlscsgnation Lav7» We feel that the inter¬ 
marriage between the races will create many more problems than it 
would ever solve., We therefore B urge you to lend your influence to 
the defeat of H.B, #129 and H.B, #132. 

Cordially 9 

NAME ADDRESS CITV 

l. 

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3. 


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7. 

a. 

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13. 

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15, 

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19 . 

20 . 

This petition is sponsored by the St, Louis Metropolitan Area 
Citizens’ Council^ P.O. Box "C"*Gravois Stafclon*St, Louis B Mo. 

63116*John - 'Sutherland. Chairman. Rev. W.C. Barlow, Vice Churn. 
Return this petition to this address. 










!By a Post 


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FD-340 tREV. 8-17-62) 


file M. - / S-7 " -< 

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I / ‘O rc^ !' T or ! r <~<^Q O'f 


On Saturday, November 20, sheriff Jim Clark from omLi.iA • 
ALABAMA, will op calc at a mooting 'sponsored, by the Jhitc Citizens 
Council-of ot. Louis, -an avid racist group. This mooting has been 
rostrieted to the "white public'* And among v/olcomcd and expected' 
groups are the National states' Bights Party -and the 3Clu Klux 
IClan, extreme racist orga&dLsations, and the-John Birch Society. 
Because,'of an enforcement' of a city ordinance prohibitingsuch 
discrimination in public.buildings, .fey-mayor Cervantes, the 
meeting will not be held in Kiel Auditorium',but elsewhere in the 
city.- However \ Avo shall register a protest for freedom to sheriff 
Jim Clark wherever, he. may speak! !■! ... 



we, as concerned students and.ot. Louis citizens, are 
voicing'our protest to'■the segregationsst brutalities and atrocittes 
concerned with the .actions, of sheriff Jim Clark. He lias used his 
,: nightstick,pistol and cattle prod" to attack hujoan beings as_ if 
"‘tHo'y^vbrd"Jjiiliial’s.''~ °h‘march 7, "1^65 s before the' Selma %o rndfit- 
gOiiiary march, ho used t.,.ose bloody tactics to turn back negroes as t h 
attempted to cross the Bdmund Pcttus Bridge from colma to highway 
80 loading to Montgomery*.According to the ot. : Louis ‘Post-Dispatch 
Nov. 9, "the .220 pound sheriff Clark arrested, and jailed hundreds of 
Negroes who tried to register in, Dallas County in the weeks pro¬ 
ceeding the oclma to Montgomery march." ’ 


we are protesting hie brutal attack on defenseless humans 
and demand human dignity ana respect -for every Jurierican citizen, 
v/e are backed by the most vital documents of tha-United'states;-” 
the Constitution and'-.the Bill of Bights, wo feolitis our .duty a3 
citizens to ' show Jim Clark that wo will not stand idly b/ and 
allow him to spread his racist, policies throughout the United etatos 
without opposition,,. He is in "the minority and we must show him 
this by surpassing ■ the attendance of ..hie meeting by our. own pickets. 
Ae call on all concerned mmprican citizens to support .the, cause of 
human dignity and equality and join us in this protect!!! 

Further information will be handed out as’ soon as 
available, by the Friends of SNCC chapter on the W,U a campus„ 


Please come dressed appropriately; girls 
skirts, Ahd boys,.suits and tics. 

For further information call Margery 
Cohen, Pa 6-1648 or Carol Mendelsohn, 

Vo 3-0100, ox. 2405... , . • ■■■ 

‘ *1|V , " T ’ 1 



W)2’6$ NOV. 21 *65' 
STUDENT ACTIVITIES OFRfi. 



FD-340 (REV. 0-17-62) 


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A monthly journal - of fact 
and opinion published by 
ST. LOUIS METROPOLITAN 
AREA CITIZENS' COUNCIL ' 


John Sutherland, Chairman 
Rev. W.C. Barlow, Vice Chairman 
Floyd G. Ki.tchen, Editor 


METROPOLITAN 




.1 CH 1-2191 


No. 1 


"States' Rights and Racial Integrity" April, 1965 

* - - ■ ' . . S i • ■ L i “ ' ’ * i T;- T 4 


JEFF CITY FEELS CITIZENS' COUNCIL IMPACT 


> 


March 8—Jefferson City: A Senate Committee holding a hearing; on the 
so-called "public accommodations" law for Missouri, heard the Cit¬ 
izens' Council in opposition to this,legislation forcefull-y^and* - 
eloquently given by Rev.'W;.C. Barlow.. .they will hear againl t ; 

EMBATTLED GOVERNOR. RECEIVES SUPPORT - * L =.' ' ' 


, r ■ : *• i' t .■ %\ ' 


March 20—St, Louis: Gov. George Wallace of Alabama ^facing over¬ 
whelming numbers and resources is standing .firm in his fight to pre¬ 
serve our Constitutional way of life. 'St. 'Louis Area Citizens* 
Council Board of Directors authorized the"’following telegram with 
copies to ,Pres. Johnson and the Attorney ‘’General: ■ . v -’a:-?' ,• ■* - 


. A ■ T i 


"TO: Governor George C. Wallace, Montgomery, Alabama...St. Louis* 

participation in Selma march not condoned ; by ma jority of' St. *. 
Louisians. Unanimous resolution adopted by Board of Directors of 
St. Louis Metropolitan Area Citizens* Councils endorses Wallace •- 
position in the present controversy." Signed: Rev. W.C. Barlow;, 




MONTHLY ACTION PROGRAM^..OPERATION LEGISLATOR 

_jmr_L - ” J L _L _a r - — 1 1 ■ V ~~ T * ** * 

If you, as a Council member, want to really do something con- 
structive and let your influence count, there are 5 people you 
should correspond with: your state representative (c/o House ’P;0. 
Jefferson City),'your state senator (c/o Senate P.^0. .Jefferson City} 
your U.S, congressman (c/o House Office Bldg, Washington, D.'C.) Sc 
your 2 U senators (c/o Senate Office Bldg., Washington-, D.C-. j 

- 1 . .JVC -a’' 

,,,: 14 . . ■ A >■ 

Many (in fact most) folks do not have these names at their finger¬ 
tips, so the ST. LOUIS>, METROPOLITAN CITIZEN has set up; an-inf orm- ;. .. 
ation bureau with this sind’other vital dathat^your disposal. !... 
simply call CH 1-2191 and we WiTlYglye,you all the details. - 

. .4 A ■ 1<4 .. „ ■- r * ‘ •*> . V % ; 

Armed with this information you 4"re. .ready to be a vital part pf 
this operation. Address'a ; short letter to each of your 5 
islators. You do not have to threaten them saying you will not . 
vote for'them if they votb against you...they are way ahead of us, 
on knowing this. ‘ Simply, and briefly , estate your feelings about 1 
the loss of your Constitutional way of life. in this current .drive , 
against It . The Response will surprise,you. . .they do read and •. «£>• 
heed letters from US. ’ 1 • t 
















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nisijm means social; and racial equality. 

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capitalism means racia l oppressiqphdCommuh-■'£. %f\ v Court's vUfocV^Mondtfy" decision. For the 

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:<**$?■;; ^ r ; r 'V. gofjort '* hod bqoh ^ oollowed by judicial . •£ 

. - t . v ■ 1 U r -«?'*+'\ ./ decree. T% way, of life .regulating the/--^ 

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j nation. I ull- racial equal.t*.; ■ . J ^ ^ ^, ^*^ 5 ^N,^ f 6 w . V* ' "■-.', : 

Abolition of all laws which result in segrega- #4 ' fl'^c iW.|,e' ' : : 

• tipn qf’.iNcghws. AboJilion of' all' Jim Crow - . J . _wq 5 : q struggle - for - 

la ws. Th€" la w sha f 1 ‘ forbid -all d is cr i m i nation' *• • - ■ '► .v-' •« h : c'rH^ 1 1 1 - Ir^i m only L hy bn^ging ’ \ 

^a^aihsto-.Negroea^in^fcili ng- t>r-rihiYii^HbVs*'s! * - 19 ^^^-vdi.mi^r^ .,• 

' J< 1 '\ r' ' 'C - t' ' f irf - iiibh; ri|id' aiiln iC'Arh.’pr., :'o ivifi-s - rcmmber- 

3 . Abolition of all laws which disenfranchise the 
Negroes on the ground of-color, , 


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pr 6 hibit r qr itl practice 

prevent, Negro children 'or youth from attend- ' - ,. \ r-.e nK^,,^',..,, .%v. fK ;,., K „j. Ulpi()(y ' ^^ 

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l .- the . rciti hi rjly , pr q vc n so{ution to t. y 

our mbsl £ soap us ", dc»ni e sti c pro^l em' T , . * • : r V t 


Full and equal admittance.,ol 

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hotels, ’a rid Hhoatlre*.'% .'.s'. ,'P ■' ?£,' &■ ■ ' ; v# *:• : <88R3FW$3 i i PW r V s f»?-'- - > 

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The War and .Navy, Department Of -the' United ■ " : f>VSivjjdnpf leyo^.;>pv^-developed .nlo a , 

Slates Government should' abolish ^all Jim . V' ';'-muVWohl .'c» >^+u) ^epoiuityn of 

S*bj» - e ■ J A * T ~ 1 * •_ I rll <f^ ^.^4 # T Ul* iTjFJ .■ flax. . jK It ^ ~ —i Zm * . — ... I .i! L . - 

Crow ciistmetions in the army and . navy, 

■ J ... ■■ "(S^.r-' v. ' 

Immediate removal of all restrictlons in ail 
trade unions against the memherahjjp 6 ^ Negro, 

UJIiKlrl'l'C ' .; - .ji- . 1 


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-. if 


* v "!k\ :■:* < 7-vf*r /tV-. ’./ _ 

Sub'sc:fiption to the: ' 

‘■■ ; v ST )V LOUIS; METROPOLITAN 

hours, and .working, conditions,-fdr>N,cgro' add^" ■ * y*- ^ f. ;V^ QITl-ZJElj : 

■ white workers. , . ' l A A ■■■ ^ ■■' . ■ ■■ : . : A'v.pneAdpilshr:-;^- ’.yeairy^uiMi^^ | 


workers. 

II. Equal t j pportun 1 ly for emplayfrient (r wages; t 


Copy From The .Library of Congress 


the- coupon • beli'ow.' 



. :■ *•'". ■ ■ N " l ; 

Sf. Louis Metropolitoh Area 

CiHzenj' Council „.r ., 

Grovoh Station . 

P. O. fiojt “C" , 

Sf Louis, Missouri 63116 


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VT- T 1 .-\1 

y. 


■ , ,; 4 . ■ V C™;" V “ 7; - f 

„.■ ■ *;"■ v 1 ; ! A{® infprmalipn-about,the .CWIiwii^CowkS. ‘ " 

'■ ..;!%• •*’rt ; : y',•-■■ V••>:" l v.rw : A ," ■ ■; : .y-.i'/7 :•>>?' ! **--~A • '■ 

! •- -c' ; : »rtie questions :fb ask; v ‘ L ^ : ' r > ^.. ( ' Vv 

Und OXFORD':„ St, Lauls -' : - 
*••• . - f;;£%&'!enclose |1 for [ tha-CITIZEN 1 1 " . 


and SELMA 


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' L ■ ' ', > V * ! c ’ 1 - J t r "'■ ■ 






























ST, LOUIS 

METROPOLITAN AREA CITIZENS 0 COUNCIL 
. ‘ P.O, Box 9683 

Kirkwpod 22p Mo. 

Sea? Friend of the Citizens 9 Council,, 

For ecfR® time now you have been enjoying the privileges of Citizens' 
Council membership,, but our records indicate your monthly dues to be 
in arrears. Up to now we have been willing to go along on this basis 
because it is so important that you keep receiving Citizens 9 Council 
publications and informstipn. : \ 

Now 0 our national headquarters In Jackson is putting pressure on us to 
pay our bills to them for servicing our memberships» This involves quite 
a bit of money„ and frankly is.the reason for the emergency nature of 
this letter; ■ **—---—— 

We know you are interested in seeing the work of the Citizens 6 Council 
go forward. Our part in the defeat of the intermarriage bill was only 
a start. But e to carry on every member must shoulder a part of this 
responsibility. In this struggle the funds will come from neither the 
big tax free foundations nor from government handouts.,.if they are to 
be available at all they must come from the people who have formed the 
backbone of America since the night they threw tea Into Boston Harbor. 

You are still carried on the rolls as a member...you are needed there in 
a place of service; however„ this is a two way street. We realise the 
heavy obligations on' everyone today end in order for to to continue as a 
member„ receive the magazine and newsletter and have voting privileges * 
we have permission to permit those behind in their dues to start re¬ 
paying with the current month. This is a limited offer, so please let 
us know right away...for Sad to say those who do not respond will have 
to be dropped. 

By responding you will remain a vital part of this great movement,,.don't 
sever this link with fellow believers...the need was never greater. 

Great campaigns are being planned for the next few months...be a part of 
them. Eta tee* rights and racial integrity are-not -just slogans...., they _ 
-are-the-.watchword® for..the..solvation of western civilization. 

" **** a, ‘* ?s '' - --- 

Cordially,, * V 

YOUR CITIZENS 8 COUNCIL 


P.O. Box 9683.Kirkwood.22.Mo. CITIZENS 9 COUNCIL 

/ 7 Ye®„ I want'to continue...here.is S for m onths ($2 per-month 

starting with September) 

' 1 ;■ f • * 

Name*. ■ , ' 1 

ADDRESS; 

CITY & STATE:__